Phylogenetic relationships of Australian and New Zealand feral pigs assessed by mitochondrial control region sequence and nuclear GPIP genotype

Pigs were introduced into Australia and New Zealand in the 18th and 19th centuries, with some establishing feral populations. With few records of pig introductions into these two countries, molecular phylogenetic analysis was used to assess their origins. Mitochondrial (mt) control region sequence and nuclear glucosephosphate isomerase pseudogene (GPIP) restriction fragments were used, as distinct European and Asian domestic pig and Wild Boar control region clades and GPIP genotypes can be recognised.

Feral pig control region sequences clustered with either European or Asian domestic pig sequences and both Asian and European GPIP alleles were segregating. It was not possible to distinguish direct importation of Asian domestic animals into Australia and New Zealand from indirect introgression of Asian domestic sequences via Europe. However, the clustering of three feral control region sequences of pigs from northern Australia with Asian Wild Boar implies unrecorded introduction of Wild Boar or crossbred animals into Australia. However, two of these feral pigs had European GPIP alleles. In combination, analyses of control region and GPIP markers suggest that both European and Asian pigs have contributed in similar frequencies to the origins of Australian feral pigs.

Author Gongora, J., Fleming, P., Spencer, P. B., Mason, R., Garkavenko, O., Meyer, J. N., Droegemueller, C., Lee, J. H. and Moran, C.
Year 2004
Secondary title Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Volume 33
Number 2
Institution University of Sydney
Pages 339-348