Origin of mammals of the Arctic tundra

Lemmings and tundra appeared in Pliocene, arctic fox and polar bear later [also stoat, weasel – see Kurten]. All tundra mammals originated in the Old World. Tundra-steppe more grassy than now, continuous across Asia, disappearance of this vegetation type was main reason for post-glacial extinction of large herbivores.

Author K. Kowalski
Year 1980
Secondary title Folia Quaternaria
Volume 51