Major Conservation Policy Issues for Biodiversity in Oceania

Oceania is a diverse region encompassing Australia, Melanesia, Micronesia, New Zealand, and Polynesia, and it contains six of the world’s 39 hotspots of diversity. It has a poor record for extinctions, particularly for birds on islands and mammals. Major causes include habitat loss and degradation, invasive species, and overexploitation. We identified six major threatening processes (habitat loss and degradation, invasive species, climate change, overexploitation, pollution, and disease) based on a comprehensive review of the literature and for each developed a set of conservation policies. Many policies reflect the urgent need to deal with the effects of burgeoning human populations (expected to increase significantly in the region) on biodiversity. There is considerable difference in resources for conservation, including people and available scientific information, which are heavily biased toward more developed countries in Oceania. Most scientific publications analyzed for four threats (habitat loss, invasive species, overexploitation, and pollution) are from developed countries: 88.6% of Web of Science publications were from Australia (53.7%), New Zealand (24.3%), and Hawaiian Islands (10.5%). Many island states have limited resources or expertise. Even countries that do (e.g., Australia, New Zealand) have ongoing and emerging significant challenges, particularly with the interactive effects of climate change. Oceania will require the implementation of effective policies for conservation if the region’s poor record on extinctions is not to continue.

Author R. T. KINGSFORD, J. E. M. WATSON, C. J. LUNDQUIST, O. VENTER, L. HUGHES, E. L. JOHNSTON, J. ATHERTON, M. GAWEL, D. A. KEITH, B. G. MACKEY, C. MORLEY, H. P. POSSINGHAM, B. RAYNOR, H. F. RECHER, K. A. WILSON
Date 13/07/2009
Year 2009
Secondary title Conservation Biology
Volume 23
Number 4
Institution University of New South Wales
Department School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Scie
Pages 834-840
Notes Notes
ISBN/ISSN DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01287.x
Links https://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122511867/abstract