List of exotic animals in Australia subject to risk assessment

Definition of Vertebrate Pests Committee Threat Categories

(from Guidelines for the Import, Movement and Keeping of Exotic Vertebrates in Australia – 2003).

Also refer to List of Exotic Vertebrate Animals in Australia – Revised 2007.

To assign an exotic species to a threat category, three risk scores are calculated: the risk that (1) an escaped or released individual would harm people, (2) escaped or released individuals would establish a wild free-living population (3) the species would be a pest if a wild population did establish. These three risk scores are then used to assign the exotic species to one of four threat categories: extreme, serious, moderate or low (see table below). For further information about the risk assessment method used, please see Risk Assessment for the Import and Keeping of Exotic Vertebrates in Australia (Bomford, 2003) and Risk Assessment Models for Establishment of Exotic Vertebrates in Australia and New Zealand (Bomford 2008).

E – Extreme Threat Category
These animals should not be allowed to enter, nor be kept in any State or Territory. (Special consideration may be given to scientific institutions on a case by case basis.) Any species that has not been assessed previously should be considered to be in the Extreme Threat Category and should be treated accordingly, until a risk assessment is conducted.

S – Serious Threat Category
These animals may be introduced and/or should be kept only in collections approved by the relevant State/Territory authority as being primarily kept for (1) public display and education purposes, and/or for (2) genuine scientific research approved by the relevant State/Territory authority, and as meeting Best Practice for the purposes of keeping the species concerned.

M – Moderate Threat Category
These animals should be restricted to collections approved and registered by the relevant State/Territory authority for the keeping of Moderate Threat Species. States/Territories may continue to impose any additional restrictions on acquisition and keeping of Moderate Threat Species.

L – Low Threat Category
Animals which, relative to other species, have a low risk of becoming a problem for the environment, primary industry or public safety.

ANIMALS LISTED ALPHABETICALLY BY SCIENTIFIC NAME

Class Order/Family Common Name Scientific Name Threat Category for Australia; ERR- Establishment Risk Rank for Aust
Date assessment agreed by VPC
Aves Passeriformes, Sturnidae Myna, Common; Indian Myna(h); Indian House Myna(h) Acridotheres tristis EXTREME 22/04/2004
Aves Psittaciformes, Psittacidae Lovebird, Peach-faced Agapornis roseicollis SERIOUS 5/04/2004
Mammalia Carnivora,Ursidae Panda, Giant Ailuropoda melanoleuca
LOW
21/09/2005
Aves Psittaciformes, Psittacidae Aboina Parrot; Moluccan King-parrot Alisterus amboinensis SERIOUS 1/09/2008
Aves Anseriformes, Anatidae Goose, Egyptian Alopochen aegyptiacus EXTREME 5/04/2004
Aves Passeriformes, Estrildidae Munia, Red; Red Strawberry Finch; Red or Indian Avadavat; Tiger Finch; Red Waxbill Amandava amandava EXTREME 5/04/2004
Aves Psittaciformes, Psittacidae Amazon, Cuban; Cuban Parrot Amazona leucocephala SERIOUS 13/05/2006
Aves Psittaciformes, Psittacidae Yellow-crowned Amazon; Yellow-headed Amazon; Yellow-fronted Amazon; Yellow-naped Amazon Amazona ochrocephala EXTREME 13/06/2006
Aves Psittaciformes, Psittacidae Amazon, Yellow-naped Amazona ocrocephala auropalliata EXTREME 1/03/2004
Amphibia Caudata, Ambystomatidae Western Tiger Salamander Ambystoma mavortium SERIOUS ERR 10/03/2009
Amphibia Caudata, Ambystomatidae Axolotl; Mexican Walking Fish Ambystoma mexicanum ON HOLD
Aves Anseriformes, Anatidae Duck, Mallard; Mallard Anas platyrhynchos EXTREME 22/04/2004
Aves Psittaciformes, Psittacidae Macaw, Hyacinth Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus
EXTREME
13/05/2006
Aves Anseriformes, Anatidae Goose, Swan; Chinese Goose Anser cygnoides
MODERATE
21/08/2005
Mammalia Carnivora, Mustelidae Oriental Small-clawed Otter Aonyx cinereus SERIOUS 11/11/2008
Aves Apterygiformes, Apterygidae Kiwi, Brown Apteryx australis
LOW
28/12/2005
Aves Psittaciformes, Psittacidae Macaw, Red-fronted Ara rubrogenys
MODERATE
21/09/2005
Aves Psittaciformes, Psittacidae Sun Conure; Sun Parakeet Aratinga solstitialis
LOW
31/01/2007
Mammalia Artiodactyla, Cervidae Chital Deer; Axis Deer Axis axis EXTREME 2/06/2008
Aves Anseriformes, Anatidae New Zealand Scaup Aythya novaeseelandiae
MODERATE
13/05/2006
Mammalia Artiodactyla, Suidae Babirusa Babyrousa babyrussa
MODERATE
31/01/2007
Aves Gruiformes, Gruidae Crane, Grey-crowned Balearica regulorum
MODERATE
12/08/2006
Mammalia Artiodactyla, Bovidae Bison, American Bison bison
EXTREME
25/01/2006
Reptilia Squamata, Viperidae Puff Adder Bitis arietans SERIOUS ERR 11/12/2008
Reptilia Squamata, Viperidae Rhinoceros Viper Bitis nasicornis ON HOLD
Reptilia Squamata, Boidae Boa Constrictor Boa constrictor EXTREME ERR 11/12/2008
Mammalia Artiodactyla, Bovidae Banteng Cattle Bos javanicus
EXTREME
31/01/2007
Aves Anseriformes, Anatidae Canada Goose Branta canadensis EXTREME 5/04/2004
Amphibia Anura, Bufonidae Cane Toad; Giant Toad Bufo marinus EXTREME ERR 29/06/2009
Amphibia Anura, Bufonidae Black-spined Toad Bufo melanostictus SERIOUS ERR 24/08/2009
Aves Psittaciformes, Psittacidae White Cockatoo Cacatua alba MODERATE 1/03/2004
Mammalia Primates/ Callitrichidae Marmoset, Common; White-tufted-ear Marmoset Callithrix jacchus EXTREME

16/08/2004

Mammalia Artiodactyla, Camelidae Camel, Bactrian Camelus bactrianus
EXTREME
31/01/2007
Mammalia Artiodactyla, Camelidae Camel, Feral Camelus dromedarius
EXTREME
31/01/2007

Mammalia

Carnivora/ Canidae

Black-backed Jackal

Canis mesomelas

EXTREME

16/08/2004

Mammalia Artiodactyla, Bovidae Feral Goat Capra hircus
EXTREME
31/01/2007

Aves

Passeriformes, Fringillidae

Goldfinch; Eurasian Goldfinch

Carduelis carduelis

EXTREME

31/05/2004

Mammalia Artiodactyla, Cervidae Red Deer; Wapiti; Elk Cervus elaphus EXTREME 10/03/2009
Mammalia Artiodactyla/ Cervidae Rusa Deer; Timor Deer Cervus timorensis
EXTREME
21/09/2005

Mammalia

Xenarthra/ Dasypodidae

Big Hairy Armadillo; Large Hairy Armadillo

Chaetophractus villosus

SERIOUS

16/08/2004

Aves Psittaciformes, Psittacidae Brown Lory Chalcopsitta duivenbodei MODERATE 1/09/2008
Amphibia Anura, Rhacophoridae Romer’s Tree Frog Chirixalus romeri SERIOUS ERR 29/06/2009

Aves

Galliformes, Phasianidae

Bobwhite Quail; Northern Bobwhite

Colinus virginianus

EXTREME

1/03/2004

Reptilia Squamata, Boidae Emerald Tree Boa Corallus caninus ON HOLD

Aves

Passeriformes, Corvidae

House Crow; Indian or Ceylon Crow

Corvus splendens

EXTREME

31/05/2004

Aves

Galliformes, Phasianidae

Japanese Quail

Coturnix japonica

MODERATE

1/03/2004

Reptilia Testudines, Geoemydidae Chinese Three-striped Box Turtle Cuora trifasciata ON HOLD
Mammalia Artiodactyla, Cervidae Fallow Deer Dama dama EXTREME 24/03/2009
Mammalia Diprotodontia, Marcopodidiae Grey Dorcopsis Dorcopsis luctuosa MODERATE 11/12/2008
Reptilia Squamata, Colubridae Corn Snake Elaphe guttata ON HOLD
Reptilia Squamata, Colubridae Striped Trinket Snake; Stripe-tailed Rat Snake; Taiwan Beauty Snake to Beauty Snake Elaphe taeniura ON HOLD
Mammalia Perissodactyla, Equidae Burchell’s Zebra Equus burchelli
EXTREME
12/12/2004
Mammalia Insectivora, Erinaceidae Western European Hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus
EXTREME
25/01/2006

Aves

Passeriformes, Estrildidae

Common Waxbill; St Helena Waxbill

Estrilda astrild

EXTREME

1/03/2004

Aves Galliformes, Phasianidae Green Junglefowl Gallus varius
LOW
28/12/2005
Mammalia Carnivora, Ursidae Malayan Sun Bear; Sun Bear Helarctos malayanus EXTREME 10/04/2008
Reptilia Testudines, Geoemydidae Spiny Turtle Heosemys spinosa ON HOLD

Mammalia

Rodentia/ Hystricidae

Crested Porcupine; North African Crested Porcupine

Hystrix cristata

EXTREME

16/08/2004

Amphibia Anura, Microhylidae Malayan Narrow-mouthed Toad; Indian Bullfrog; Beautiful Kaloula; Asiatic Painted Frog Kaloula pulchra SERIOUS ERR 24/08/2009
Mammalia Artiodactyla, Bovidae Lechwe Kobus leche
SERIOUS
31/01/2007
Mammalia Artiodactyla, Camelidae Llama Lama glama
EXTREME
31/01/2007

Mammalia

Artiodactyla/ Camelidae

Guanaco

Lama guanicoe

EXTREME

16/08/2004

Mammalia Artiodactyla, Camelidae Alpaca Lama pacos
EXTREME
31/01/2007
Aves Passeriformes, Muscicapidae Silver-eared Mesia Leiothrix argentauris
EXTREME
12/08/2006

Aves

Passeriformes, Muscicapidae

Pekin Robin; Red-billed Leiothrix

Leiothrix lutea

SERIOUS

22/04/2004

Mammalia Primates, Callitrichidae Golden Lion Tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia MODERATE 22/06/2009
Mammalia Lagomorpha, Leporidae Snowshoe Hare Lepus americanus
EXTREME
16/07/2007
Mammalia Lagomorhpa, Leporidae European Hare Lepus europaeus EXTREME 11/12/2009
Aves Passeriformes, Sturnidae Bali Myna or Starling Leucopsar rothschildi MODERATE 1/09/2008

Aves

Passeriformes, Estrildidae

African Silverbill

Lonchura cantans

SERIOUS

1/03/2004

Aves

Passeriformes, Estrildidae

Black-headed Munia; Black-headed Nun

Lonchura malacca

EXTREME

1/03/2004

Aves Galliformes, Phasianidae Himalayan Monal Pheasant; Impeyan Pheasant Lophophorus impejanus
LOW
13/05/2006
Aves Galliformes, Phasianidae Siamese Fireback Pheasant Lophura diardi
MODERATE
10/02/2006
Aves Galliformes, Phasianidae Edwards Pheasant Lophura edwardsi
MODERATE
10/02/2006
Aves Passeriformes, Psittacidae Yellow-bibbed Lory Lorius chlorocercus MODERATE 10/03/2006
Aves Passeriformes, Psittacidae Chattering Lory Lorius garrulus MODERATE 1/09/2008
Aves Passeriformes, Psittacidae Black-capped Lory Lorius lory MODERATE 1/09/2008
Mammalia Carnivora, Canidae Dog, African Hunting; African Wild Dog; Wild Dog Lycaon pictus
EXTREME
12/12/2004
Mammalia Carnivora, Felidae Eurasian Lynx Lynx lynx EXTREME 2/06/2008
Amphibia Anura, Megophryidae Javan Horned Frog Megophrys montana ON HOLD
Aves Galliformes, Phasianidae Razor-billed Curassow Mitu tuberosa
LOW
28/12/2005
Mammalia Carnivora, Mustelidae Ermine; Stoat Mustela erminea EXTREME 11/12/2008
Mammalia Carnivora, Mustelidae Ferret; Domestic Ferret Mustela putorius furo
EXTREME
25/01/2006

Aves

Psittaciformes, Psittacidae

Monk Parakeet; Quaker Parrot

Myiopsitta monachus

EXTREME

22/04/2004

Aves

Psittaciformes, Psittacidae

Nanday Conure

Nandayus nenday

EXTREME

1/03/2004

Mammalia

Carnivora/ Canidae

Racoon Dog; Racoon-dog

Nyctereutes procyonoides

EXTREME

16/08/2004

Mammalia Lagomorpha, Leporidae European Rabbit (wild rabbit only with wild-type brown colouring; not domestic or commercial breed) Oryctolagus cuniculus EXTREME 22/06/2009
Mammalia Artiodactyla, Bovidae Damara sheep breed Ovis aries LOW ERR 22/06/2009
Mammalia Artiodactyla, Bovidae Domestic sheep (no breeds distinguished) Ovis aries EXTREME 22/06/2009
Mammalia Artiodactyla, Bovidae Dorper sheep breed Ovis aries MODERATE ERR 22/06/2009
Mammalia Artiodactyla, Bovidae Merino sheep breed Ovis aries MODERATE ERR 22/06/2009
Mammalia Artiodactyla, Bovidae Domestic sheep’s ancestor – mouflon Ovis orientalis
LOW ERR 22/06/2009

Aves

Passeriformes, Estrildidae

Java Sparrow; Paddy Finch

Padda oryzivora

SERIOUS

22/04/2004

Mammalia Carnivora, Felidae Leopard Panthera pardus
EXTREME
21/09/2005

Aves

Passeriformes, Ploceidae

House Sparrow

Passer domesticus

EXTREME

31/05/2004

Mammalia

Artiodactyla/ Tayassuidae

Collared Pecari

Pecari tajacu

EXTREME

31/05/2004

Mammalia Rodentia, Pedetidae Spring Hare Pedetes capensis
EXTREME
21/09/2005

Aves

Galliformes, Phasianidae

Ring-necked Pheasant; Common Pheasant

Phasianus colchicus

EXTREME

31/05/2004

Aves Ciconiiformes, Phoenicopteridae Chilean Flamingo Phoenicopterus chilensis
SERIOUS
21/09/2005
Aves Ciconiiformes, Phoenicopteridae Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber
EXTREME
21/09/2005
Aves Galliformes, Phasianidae Palawan Peacock-pheasant Polyplectron emphanum SERIOUS 1/09/2008
Mammalia Carnivora, Felidae Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus EXTREME 10/04/2008
Mammalia Carnivora, Procyonidae Common Raccoon; Northern Raccoon Procyon Iotor
EXTREME
12/12/2004

Aves

Psittaciformes, Psittacidae

Dusky Lory

Pseudeos fuscata

MODERATE

1/03/2004

Aves Passeriformes, Corvidae Brown Jay Psilorhinus morio
MODERATE
21/09/2005

Aves

Psittaciformes, Psittacidae

Alexandrine Parakeet

Psittacula eupatria

EXTREME

1/03/2004

Aves

Psittaciformes, Psittacidae

Rose-ringed Parakeet; Indian or African Ringneck Parrot or Parakeet

Psittacula krameri

EXTREME

22/04/2004

Aves
Psittaciformes, Psittacidae
Grey Parrot; African Grey Parrot
Psittacus erithacus
MODERATE
20/04/2004
Aves Passeriformes, Psittacidae Red-whiskered Bulbul Pycnonotus jocosus SERIOUS 8/05/2010
Aves
Psittaciformes, Psittacidae
Maroon-bellied Conure
Pyrrhura frontalis
SERIOUS
28/12/2005
Amphibia Anura, Ranidae African Bullfrog Pyxicephalus adspersus SERIOUS ERR 24/08/2009
Reptilia Squamata, Typhlopidae Flowerpot Snake; Brahminy blindsnake; Bootlace Snake Ramphotypholps braminus EXTREME ERR 29/06/2009
Mammalia Rodentia, Muridae Pacific Rat; Polynesian Rat Rattus exulans EXTREME 3/02/2011
Aves
Rheiformes, Rheidae
Greater Rhea
Rhea americana
SERIOUS
21/09/2005

Aves

Columbiformes, Columbidae

Collared Dove; Collared Turtle-dove; Indian Ring Dove; Barbary Dove (fawn or white variations)

Streptopelia decaocto

EXTREME

22/04/2004

Aves

Columbiformes, Columbidae

African Collared Dove

Streptopelia roseogrisea

SERIOUS

31/05/2004

Aves Struthioniformes, Struthionidae Ostrich Struthio camelus SERIOUS 11/12/2008
Aves Passeriformes, Sturnidae Common Starling; European Starling Sturnus vulgaris EXTREME 1/09/2008
Mammalia Carnivora, Herpestidae Meerkat Suricata suricatta MODERATE 11/12/2008
Mammalia
Artiodactyla, Suidae
Wild Boar; Feral pig
Sus scrofa
EXTREME
16/07/2007
Mammalia Primates, Hylobatidae Siamang Symphalangus syndactylus MODERATE 11/12/2008
Aves
Galliformes, Phasianidae
Reeves’ Pheasant
Syrmaticus reevesii
EXTREME
13/05/2006
Amphibia Caudata, Salamandridae Rough-skinned Newt Taricha granulosa ON HOLD
Aves
Cuculiformes, Musophagidae
White-cheeked Turaco
Tauraco leucotis
MODERATE
13/05/2006
Reptilia Testudines, Emydidae Ornate Box turtle; Western Box Turtle Terrapene ornata SERIOUS ERR 2/06/2008
Reptilia Testudines, Emydidae Common Slider; Pond Slider; Yellow-bellied Slider; Red-eared Slider Trachemys scripta EXTREME ERR 10/04/2008

Aves

Psittaciformes, Psittacidae

Ornate Lorikeet

Trichoglossus ornatus

MODERATE

5/04/2004

Amphibia Caudata, Salamandridae Smooth Newt Triturus vulgaris ON HOLD

Aves

Passeriformes, Muscicapidae

Common Blackbird; Eurasian Blackbird

Turdus merula

EXTREME

22/04/2004

Aves

Passeriformes, Estrildidae

Red-cheeked Cordon-bleu

Uraeginthus bengalus

SERIOUS

22/04/2004

Aves

Passeriformes, Estrildidae

Violet-eared Waxbill; Common Grenadier

Uraeginthus granatina

MODERATE

22/04/2004

Mammalia Carnivora, Ursidae Brown bear; Grizzly bear Ursus arctos EXTREME 2/06/2008
Aves
Passeriformes, Emberizidae
Blue-black Grassquit; Jacarini Finch
Volatinia jacarina
SERIOUS
28/12/2005
Mammalia Carnivora, Canidae Red Fox Vulpes vulpes EXTREME 22/06/2009
Aves
Falconiformes, Cathartidae
Andean Condor
Vultur gryphus
MODERATE
21/09/2005
Amphibia Anura, Pipidae African Clawed Toad; African Clawed Frog Xenopus laevis EXTREME ERR 29/06/2009
Last updated: February 24, 2015