Distribution of pure dingoes and dingo-dog hybrids in Australia

The term ‘wild dog’ collectively refers to pure dingoes, feral domestic dogs and hybrids between the two. In other words, all free-roaming Canis species are labelled and managed as wild dogs.

Grey wolves (Canis lupus) were domesticated by people in Asia over  10,000 years ago to create dingoes. A few of these domesticated  animals were first brought to Australia about 4000 years ago and literally let loose. Dingoes from Asia continued to be brought to  Australia until the early 1900s.

Since the early days of European settlement of Australia, domestic  dogs have been interbreeding with ‘pure’ dingoes to create hybrids  or crossbreds. The impact that this interbreeding may have on ecological processes is unknown, but hybrids are considered to pose a genetic threat to the unique identity of the Australian dingo. Knowing where the most pure populations of dingoes remain can help managers conserve these dingoes’ genetic integrity.

The colour of a wild dog’s pelt is not a very useful indicator of  genetic purity. Pure dingoes are not always the typical yellow colour  most people associate them with, and hybrids can often have this typical yellow colouring. Characteristics besides coat colour are  needed to determine whether or not a wild dog is a pure bred or a  hybrid.

purity_mapDNA testing can be used to determine the purity level of a wild dog.  By taking a piece of ear tissue, a cheek swab or some hair from a wild dog, geneticists can analyse a number of specific ‘markers’ (small pieces of the animal’s total DNA) that are known to be different  between dogs and dingoes. A freeroaming wild dog might have all dingo-like DNA or a mixture of dingo and domestic dog DNA. Very  few domestic dogs (such as escaped pets or working dogs) are found  in the wild on the mainland.

Recent results from 3637 wild dog DNA samples from across  Australia have found that the percentage of hybrids in the wild is  generally higher in areas with large human populations, such as New  South Wales and Victoria (Map, right). More remote areas inland and to the west have higher levels of dingo purity, with 87% of  wild dogs tested in the Northern Territory being pure dingoes  (Graph, below).


Since domestic dogs arrived in Australia, interbreeding between  dogs and dingoes has progressed rapidly. Understanding which  areas have pure dingoes and which have hybrids is important for  dingo conservation and for understanding the ecology of wild dogs in Australia’s ecosystems.

More information:
Claridge A and Hunt R (2008). Evaluating the role of the dingo as a  trophic regulator: additional practical suggestions. Ecological  Management and Restoration 9:116–119.

Glen AS (2010). Hybridisation between dingoes and domestic dogs: a comment on Jones (2009). Australian Mammalogy 32:76–77.

Corbett LK (2008). Canis lupus ssp. dingo. IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Elledge AE, Allen LR, Carlsson BL, Wilton AN and Leung LKP (2008).  An evaluation of genetic analyses, skull morphology and visual  appearance for assessing dingo purity: implications for dingo  conservation. Wildlife Research 35:812–820.

Wilton AN (2001). DNA methods of assessing dingo purity. In:  Dickman CR and Lunney D (Eds), A Symposium on the Dingo, Royal  Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, p49–56.

Stephens D (2011). The Molecular Ecology of Australian Wild Dogs:  Hybridisation, Gene Flow and Genetic Structure at Multiple  Geographic Scales. PhD Thesis. The University of Western Australia, Perth.

AuthorInvasive Animals CRC
PublisherInvasive Animals CRC
Pages2 pp
ISBN/ISSNPestSmart code: WDFS6
RegionAustralia - national

PestSmart Factsheet: Distribution of pure dingoes and dingo-dog hybrids in Australia [360kb PDF]