Category Archives: Cyprinus

StuartMitchell_carp1

Pheromone attractants as a means of carp control

CPFS8_coverCarp (Cyprinus carpio) are one of the most damaging invasive fishes in Australian shallow lakes, wetlands and rivers. Techniques currently available to control this species are generally labour intensive and unlikely to have long-term benefits unless persisted with longterm.

An important strategy for the control of carp is to enhance our understanding of their behaviours and vulnerabilities  to improve the efficiency of control methods. For example, the success of existing control methods, such as trapping, can  be increased by ‘baiting’ traps using various carp-attracting options.

This factsheet explores chemical-based environmental and sensory attractants, which may potentially direct carp  behaviour and movements.

Produced by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre as part of the PestSmart series.

Reference type Fact Sheet
Author Invasive Animals CRC
Year 2014
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 2 pp
ISBN/ISSN PestSmart code: CPFS8
Control method Integrated Pest Management
Region Australia - national
Links
Documents

PestSmart Factsheet: pheromone attractants as a means of carp control  [450kb PDF]

Carp surveys of the Logan and Albert Rivers Catchment, 2006-2009

CarpSurvey_coverIn 2006, a benchmarking fisheries assessment survey found that the Logan and Albert rivers catchment was heavily infested with carp. Benchmarking entailed electrofishing surveys at 28 sites across the catchment. The purpose was to document the status of carp and native fish species in the rivers before implementing carp management actions.

In 2007, research began into the cost effectiveness of a range of carp management strategies in parts of the catchment. As part of this research, we repeated electrofishing surveys at 18 of the 28 benchmarking sites in 2007. Heavy rains and a series of high-flow events prevented repeat sampling at the remaining ten sites. The repeated surveys were designed to detect changes in fish assemblages and habitat conditions due to both environmental variables and carp management actions. Treatment and control sites were sampled to assess the role of these factors.

In 2009, the research program on carp management strategies was completed and we assessed changes in the fish assemblages based on a final fisheries assessment survey. We electrofished at 17 sites encompassing areas where there had been intense carp removal, control areas where there had been no carp removal, and areas where carp had been removed in previous years. The survey results, presented in this report, detail the distribution, biomass and density of carp in the catchment and enable the impact of carp management activities to be assessed.

Reference type Report
Secondary title PestSmart Toolkit - Carp
Author Andrew Norris, Keith Chilcott, Michael Hutchison and Danielle Stewart
Year 2011
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Department Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre
Pages 31 pp
ISBN/ISSN Web ISBN: 978-1-921777-35-6
Control method Fishing
Region QLD
Documents Carp surveys of the Logan and Albert Rivers Catchment, 2006-2009 [ 770kb PDF ]
Links PestSmart Toolkit for carp:  www.pestsmart.org.au/pestsmart/carp/

Social drivers behind participation in pest fish-out competitions

SocialDrivers_coverIt is now widely accepted that it is important to understand the ‘human dimensions’ of wildlife management issues to achieve management goals (Conover 2002; Miller 2009). One of the key areas of interest within human dimensions is participation and uptake of management initiatives by the community. A clearer understanding of the drivers behind community participation will lead to better engagement with stakeholders and ultimately increase the uptake and success of management actions.

Many community groups are concerned about the impacts of pest fish, particularly carp, (Cypinus carpio) in their local waterways and want to actively address the issue. To combat the impacts and spread of these pest fish some groups have organised community ‘fish-out’ events.

The objectives of this project were to investigate the drivers, or reasons, behind participation in carp fish-out competitions and how participants perceive the presence of carp in the rivers. Competitors at six competitions were asked to complete a survey looking at their drivers behind participation, perceived impacts of carp and demographics.

Published by the Invasive Animals CRC as part of the PestSmart Toolkit series.

Reference type Report
Documents Social drivers behind participation in pest fish-out competitions [ 630kb PDF ]
Links PestSmart Toolkit for carp:  www.pestsmart.org.au/pestsmart/carp/
Secondary title PestSmart Toolkit
Author Andrew Norris and Guy Ballard
Year 2013
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Department Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre
Pages 39 pp
ISBN/ISSN ISSD: 978-1-921777-66-0
Control method Fishing

The role of fishing competitions in pest fish management

Carp (Cyprinus carpio) are one of at least 34 freshwater fish species introduced into Australia that have established self-sustaining populations (Lintermans 2004). Carp are now the most abundant large freshwater fish in the Murray–Darling Basin, comprising up to 90% of fish biomass in some locations, and are the dominant species in many fish communities in south-eastern Australia (Reid and Harris 1997, Brown et al 2003).

Many community groups are concerned about the detrimental impacts carp are having in their local waterways, and some groups have organised ‘fish-out’ events to actively address the issue. It is well known that fishing pressure can run down fish stocks in a river (Templeton 1995), but it remains unclear as to whether community-based fish-out events have a significant impact on their target species. This project quantified the percentage of carp population removed in three ‘fish-out’ competitions in the Queensland portion of the Murray–Darling Basin.

At each competition, a series of monitoring sites were established. Before the events began, carp were captured at these sites via electrofishing, marked with dart tags and released. The competition catch and post-event electrofishing enabled the carp population size at each site to be estimated from tag return rates using the Lincoln–Peterson method. Population reductions from both the competition angling and the subsequent electrofishing were calculated. A total of 1006 carp were tagged with an overall tag return of 12% for the whole project.

The results demonstrated that carp angling competitions are not very effective as a direct form of carp management. The removal efforts occurred over large areas, resulting in low angling pressure and removal rates. Population reductions were observed in the range of 0.5%–1.8% across the competition areas. In comparison, removal via boat electrofishing resulted in a carp population reduction of 8.3%–16.1%. When compared to electrofishing, the catch per unit of effort (CPUE) of competition angling was found to be nearly 100 times less in terms of carp caught per man hour. We conclude that the way these events are currently run, they are unlikely to have any significant impact on local carp population numbers.

Carp fishing competitions do, however, have a range of less tangible management benefits. The events help educate the wider community on the detrimental impacts of pest fish, raise awareness and ownership of the pest fish issue and provide a social focal point for smaller regional communities. The competitions can also generate money, which can be directed into native fish restocking, river restoration or funding contractors to remove carp in high-value areas.

Secondary title PestSmart Toolkit
Reference type Report
Author Andrew Norris, Keith Chilcott and Michael Hutchison
Year 2013
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Department Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
Pages 45 pp
ISBN/ISSN ISSD: 978-1-921777-65-3
Control method Fishing
Region QLD
Documents The role of fishing competitions in pest fish management [ 960kb PDF ]
Links  

Daughterless carp

page1Carp are prolific breeders. A single female carp can produce upward of 1.5 million eggs per year. This means that typical control programs that concentrate on physical removal of the fish or that target individual spawning events are unlikely to have an impact, except on a local scale. Sophisticated modelling exercises support this.

With funding from the Murray-Darling Basin Authority (MDBA) through the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre (IA CRC), CSIRO has been developing alternative and potentially more powerful means of controlling carp, by breeding into a carp population a mechanism that reduces the number of females and so radically reduces carp numbers within a few generations. This is the basis for ‘daughterless technology’.

Produced by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre as part of the PestSmart series.

Reference type Fact Sheet
Author Invasive Animals CRC
Year 2012
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 2 pp
ISBN/ISSN PestSmart code: CPFS2
Control method Fertility Control
Region Australia - national
Documents PestSmart Factsheet: Daughterless carp [360 kb PDF]
Links PestSmart Toolkit carp page

A manual for carp control: The Tasmanian model

The Carp Management Program (CMP) was established within the Inland Fisheries Service (IFS) in 1995, in response to an incursion of Cyprinus carpio (carp) found in Lake Crescent, at Interlaken, in the central highlands of Tasmania. The incursion was contained to Lake Crescent and the upstream Lake Sorell. The integrated pest management strategies used have resulted in the successful eradication of carp from Lake Crescent and are ongoing in Lake Sorell.

This manual describes the progressive and integrated approaches that were employed to control/eradicate carp in Tasmania and that are likely to be of relevance elsewhere.

Author Diggle J, Patil J and Wisniewski C
Year 2012
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 34
ISBN/ISSN Web ISBN: 978-1-921777-52-3
Control method Integrated Pest Management
Region TAS
Documents A manual for carp control: The Tasmanian model [2Mb PDF]
Links PestSmart toolkit: Carp - www.pestsmart.org.au/pestsmart/carp/

Feral Photos 2011

These images were entries in the first-ever Invasive Animals CRC’s Feral Photos photography competition held in 2011. The competition was initiated to help improve levels of awareness among members of the community, who have observed the presence of pest animals in their environment. The photos illustrate the significant diversity of pests we have in Australia and entries were received from across each State & Territory.
WARNING: Some people may find some of the following images confronting or distressing.

Click on the thumbnails to view a larger image.

See the website www.invasiveanimals.com/feral-photos for more information.

Validating the age of carp from the northern Murray-Darling Basin

Being able to accurately age carp is important for modelling population dynamics and potential response to various control strategies. This study examined the use of oxytetracycline (OTC) and otolith (ear bone) sampling to determine the formation of bone growth rings and in turn estimate the age of carp populations in the northern Murray–Darling Basin (MDB).

OTC leaves a mark in bony tissue that can be used as a reference point to analyse the formation of subsequent growth rings, known as ‘check marks’. The number of check marks that appear over a known time period can then be used to determine the age of the fish. In carp populations in the southern MDB, check marks are known to form annually. However, whether this occurs in the subtropical environment of the northern MDB had not been examined before this project. Validating this ageing method will enable population modelling to be applied to the whole MDB and assist in carp management.

Secondary title PestSmart toolkit - carp
Author Hutchison M, McLennan M, Chilcott K, Norris A and Stewart D
Year 2012
Place published Canberra
Publisher Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre
Institution Invasive Animals CRC
Department Freshwater Products and Strategies
Pages 24 pp
ISBN/ISSN Web ISBN: 978-1-921777-48-6
Region Australia - national
Documents Validating the age of carp from the northern Murray-Darling Basin [1 Mb PDF]
Links http://www.pestsmart.org.au/pestsmart/carp/

Koi herpesvirus as a biological control for carp

CPFS7coverCarp (Cyprinus carpio) are not native to Australia, but they now dominate fish communities throughout many inland waterways. Widespread  eradication of these established populations would be difficult, costly and complicated. Recently, cyprinid herpesvirus 3, commonly known as koi herpesvirus (KHV), has been proposed as a potential biological control method for carp in Australia. It has the potential to substantially reduce Australian carp populations, with impacts likely to be increased when used in an integrated carp management control program.

Produced by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre as part of the PestSmart series.

Documents PestSmart Factsheet: Koi herpesvirus as a biological control for carp
Links
Author Invasive Animals CRC
Year 2012
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 2 pp
ISBN/ISSN PestSmart code: CPFS7
Control method Biological Control
Region Australia - national

Introduction and distribution of carp in Australia

The first attempts to introduce carp to Australia were made in the late 1850s. The first of these into Tasmania in 1858 was not successful. An introduction to Victoria in 1859 succeeded in establishing a population in the Botanic Gardens in Melbourne, which persisted until 1962. Carp do not appear to have spread from there. These introductions reflect the community attitudes at the time, with attempts being made by acclimatisation groups to introduce many European species. For example, brown trout were first successfully introduced to Tasmania from the United Kingdom in 1864 and a variety of other new plants and animals were also imported to provide both food and recreation for colonial residents.

Produced by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre as part of the PestSmart series.

Documents PestSmart Factsheet: Introduction and distribution of carp in Australia
Links
Author Invasive Animals CRC
Year 2012
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 2 pp
ISBN/ISSN PestSmart code: CPFS6
Region Australia - national

Impacts of carp in Australia

Are carp a genuine cause of environmental damage in Australia, or are they merely a symptom of the poor health of our inland waters that has resulted from other causes? It is certainly true that carp are very good at exploiting degraded systems due to their ability to tolerate a wide range of water conditions. However, it doesn’t necessarily follow that they prefer degraded conditions as is often claimed. It also does not mean that they caused the habitat degradation in the first place. What they will do is make it more difficult to restore these systems to a healthy condition.

Produced by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre as part of the PestSmart series.

Documents PestSmart Factsheet: Impacts of carp in Australia
Links
Author Invasive Animals CRC
Year 2012
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 2 pp
ISBN/ISSN PestSmart code: CPFS5
Region Australia - national

Use of chemicals as poisons for pest fish control

Chemicals can be used to eradicate small, isolated populations of pest fish quickly (spot removal) and with a moderate cost, provided that the benefits clearly outweigh any harm to native species and the environment. There have been a number of attempts to control pest fish in Australia and almost half of these have included the use of chemicals (fish poisons are known as ‘piscicides’). Examples are the successful eradication of carp from Tasmania in the 1970s and from the Cooper Creek drainage in South Australia.

Produced by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre as part of the PestSmart series.

Documents PestSmart Factsheet: Use of chemicals as poisons for pest fish control
Links
Author Invasive Animals CRC
Year 2012
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 2 pp
ISBN/ISSN PestSmart code: PFFS1
Control method Poison / Toxin
Region Australia - national

Containment as a method for pest fish control

Containment and exclusion are critical actions in a rapid response to new pest fish incursions and in the ongoing management of established pest fish populations. Effective containment and exclusion limits the scale of potential environmental, social and economic impacts and reduces the area of management, thus reducing associated costs and resources. Physical and behavioural barriers can be used for fish containment and exclusion and their use is often an integral part of pest fish eradication and control programs.

Produced by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre as part of the PestSmart series.

Documents PestSmart Factsheet: Containment as a method for pest fish control
Links
Author Invasive Animals CRC
Year 2012
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 2 pp
ISBN/ISSN PestSmart code: PFFS2
Region Australia - national

The importance of public consultation for pest fish management

The management of pest fish in Australia needs a coordinated approach between all stakeholders including government, industry, research providers and the broader community. Community engagement, acceptance and support are essential to the success of an integrated pest fish management program; that is, one that takes many approaches.

Produced by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre as part of the PestSmart series.

Documents PestSmart Factsheet: the importance of public consultation for pest fish management
Links PestSmart Toolkit carp page
Author Invasive Animals CRC
Year 2012
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 4pp
ISBN/ISSN PestSmart code: PFFS3
Region Australia - national

Carp spawning hotspots

Carp have become the dominant species within the Murray–Darling Basin (MDB) and an effective, integrated strategy is needed to control them. An important first step of such a program is to determine the status and biology of carp populations throughout the MDB, and so identify any weaknesses that offer an opportunity for enhanced control.

A study in New South Wales (NSW) indicated that carp do not reproduce throughout entire river systems, and that the  majority of juvenile carp originate from a relatively small number of locations. These sites are known as ‘recruitment hotspots’. In NSW, carp hotspots include important wetlands such as the Macquarie Marshes, Namoi Wetlands, Gwydir
Wetlands and the Barmah–Millewa Forest.

Case study on the identification of carp spawning and recruitment hotspots in the Murray-Darling Basin. Produced by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre as part of the PestSmart series.

Documents

PestSmart Case Study: Carp spawning hotspots

Links

PestSmart Toolkit carp page

Author Invasive Animals CRC
Year 2012
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 2 pp
ISBN/ISSN PestSmart code: CPCS1
Region NSW

Will the community accept our science? Monitoring the community’s view about managing pest animals in Australia

The Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre Community Awareness Survey (CAS) has pioneered a new technique in opinion research called ‘Reading the Public Mind’ (RtPM). For a comparatively low cost, this technique has provided a ‘moving picture’ that charts the changes in public attitudes to invasive animals and their control through time and helps explain the reasons behind them. It identifies the drivers of public opinion, thereby increasing the scope for better science communication, for education where public understanding might be faulty and for improved research planning based on knowledge of what the public will and will not accept.

CAS has produced remarkably consistent results over the nearly three years that it operated, providing the first Australia-wide picture of public attitudes and beliefs regarding invasive animals and ways of controlling them.

Author Fisher NI, Lee AJ and Cribb JHJ
Year 2012
Place published Canberra
Publisher Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre
Institution Invasive Animals CRC
Department Detection and Prevention Program
Pages 59 pp
ISBN/ISSN Web ISBN: 978-1-921777-42-4
Region Australia - national
Documents Will the community accept our science? Monitoring the community’s view about managing pest animals in Australia

PestSmart Factsheet: Carp

Carp (Cyprinus carpio) were first introduced to Australia more than 100 years ago. They are now widely established throughout the Murray-Darling Basin and can also be found in all states and territories except the Northern Territory. Carp are very common in parts of this range in Australia and are considered to be one of our major pest fish species.

Produced by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre as part of the PestSmart series.

Author Invasive Animals CRC
Year 2011
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 4
Region Australia - national
Documents PestSmart Factsheet: Carp [600 kb PDF]
Links PestSmart Toolkit carp page

Carp Population Biology in Victoria

Towards the end of the 1990s, there was no doubt that the majority of public opinion, and a mounting degree of scientific evidence, suggested that carp-control should be a primary concern for all agencies managing the fresh waters of southern Australia. There is now a realisation that when carp dominate a waterway, there are negative social, economic and ecological consequences. In attempting to address such problems we received enormous community support.

We acknowledge the assistance and support of a wide range of the community in delivering the science contained in this report. Natural resources managers, Fisheries Officers, commercial fishers, recreational fishers, and private landowners all contributed to the completion of this project. This science is simply one of the early steps in the long-term management of feral carp populations. Certainly, as subsequent steps are taken to solve the carp problem, further consultation and engagement with the community will be necessary.

In the light of this ground-swell of scientific conviction and public opinion, DNRE Victoria launched a major research project to determine the population dynamics of carp, Cyprinus carpio L. (Family: Cyprinidae) as an invasive  species?with the aim to evaluate and determine the most suitable control strategy.

Objectives of the project were:

  • To determine key characteristics of carp populations, including population estimates, growth, survival and reproductive rates at selected locations.
  • To develop population models for carp to allow what-if type simulation of a range of potential management strategies.
  • Through fieldwork and modelling, trial the feasibility of various capture, exclusion and control measures.
Author Paul Brown, K.P. Sivakumaran, Daniel Stoessel, Annie Giles, Corey Green and Terence Walker
Year 2003
Publisher Marine and Freshwater Resources Institute
Department Department of Primary Industries
Pages 202
ISBN/ISSN ISBN: 1 74106 415 5
Region VIC
Documents Carp Population Biology in Victoria [1.2 Mb PDF]

Validation of mark-recapture population estimates for invasive common carp, Cyprinus carpio, in Lake Crescent, Tasmania

A mark-recapture study based on the Petersen method was implemented in 1998 to estimate the abundance of the invasive common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., in Lake Crescent, Tasmania. Multiple gear types were employed to minimise capture bias, with multiple capture and recapture events providing an opportunity to compute and compare Petersen and Schnabel estimates. A single Petersen estimate on recapture data and two Schnabel estimates – one each on mark (forward-Schnabel estimate) and recapture (reverse-Schnabel estimate) data – were conducted. An independent long-term double tag study facilitated estimation of the annual natural mortality. Subsequent fish-down of the population suggests that, in all likelihood, the carp have been eradicated from the lake, providing an unprecedented opportunity to verify the forward population estimates carried out in 1998. Results suggest that all three estimates were close to the true population size, with the reverse-Schnabel estimate being the most accurate and within 1% of the true population in this relatively large lake (?2365 ha). Greater accuracy of the reverse-Schnabel approach can be attributed to either minimised fish behavioural (i.e. gear susceptibility or avoidance) or computational bias associated with the forward-Schnabel and Petersen approaches, respectively. While the original estimates served as a guide in eradication of carp from the lake, the ultimate validation provides a reliable framework for abundance estimation of this invasive fish in relatively large water bodies elsewhere.

Secondary title Journal of Applied Ichthyology
Author P. Donkers, J. G. Patil, C. Wisniewski, J. E. Diggle
Date 02/11/2011
Year 2011
Volume online early
Section online early
ISBN/ISSN DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0426.2011.01887.x
Region TAS
Links http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2011.01887.x

Guidelines for planning carp fishing competitions

Many fishing and restocking clubs already host fishing competitions for native fish species and have a strong  understanding of what is needed to successfully run these events. There are several important differences in hosting competitions for carp, primarily because carp is a declared pest or noxious species. This guide aims to highlight these differences and provide some ideas to make carp competitions more effective and enjoyable.

In recent years, growing environmental awareness has led to a rise in community activities aimed at supporting or recovering the local environment. Carp fishing competitions are seen as a fun, hands-on way for members of the public to help reduce the high numbers of this pest fish and its destructive impact on inland waterways. High-technology methods such as electrofishing (by trained personnel) are certainly more efficient at reducing carp populations, but they do not provide the community with a sense of involvement.

This guide will be a useful reference for any fishing club or other organisation considering hosting a carp fishing competition. It includes scientific knowledge of the habits and ecology of carp and the most efficient ways to target them. It also includes advice from experienced fishing competition organisers on how to plan and run a public event. Examples and advice are provided on how to successfully combine these two sets of sometimes-conflicting ideals. A workbook is attached at the end.

The guide explains how to set the objectives of a competition, and how these objectives influence many other aspects of planning, such as the site, timing and size of the event and likely sponsors and prizes. It provides advice on public event advertising, permits and insurance, catering, entertainment, registration systems and crowd control. The aim is to maximise the fishing competition’s effectiveness against carp while ensuring a safe and enjoyable public event that everyone will be keen to do again.

Documents Guidelines for planning carp fishing competitions (730 kb PDF)
Links PestSmart Toolkit for carp:  www.pestsmart.org.au/pestsmart/carp/
Secondary title PestSmart toolkit - carp
Author Andrew Norris
Year 2011
Place published Canberra
Publisher Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre
Institution Invasive Animals CRC
Department Freshwater Products and Strategies
Pages 58 pp
ISBN/ISSN Web ISBN: 978-1-921777-31-8
Control method Fishing
Region Australia - national