Category Archives: Carp; European carp

Native fish predators as a biological control method for carp

CPCS6_coverIn the last 40 years, carp have become widespread and abundant in Australia’s river systems, becoming a potential food source for birds, fish, reptiles, invertebrates and mammals. Relative decreases in numbers of native prey fish coupled with increasing carp numbers means that carp are now a readily available food for Murray cod and possibly other native fish predators. However, the extent to which these predators influence carp populations is not well understood.

One study found Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) predation on carp was relatively common as carp were found in 35% of Murray cod gut samples. Golden perch (Macquaria ambigua) were also reported to consume carp as a small proportion of their diet. It has been suggested that stocking native fish predators known to prey on carp,  combined with conventional control methods, may be a potential carp management option.

A case study on the the utility of using native fish predators in controlling carp. Produced by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre as part of the PestSmart series.

Reference type Fact Sheet
Author Invasive Animals CRC
Year 2014
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 2
ISBN/ISSN PestSmart code: CPCS6
Control method Biological Control
Region Australia - national
Documents

CPCS6 PestSmart Case Study: Native fish predators as a biological control method for carp   [475 kb PDF]

Links

PestSmart Toolkit carp page:   www.pestsmart.org.au/pestsmart/carp/

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Radio tracking as a support tool of carp control methods

CPFS9_coverCommon carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) are a freshwater pest fish in Australia. To efficiently plan and implement an integrated carp management program, we need to understand when, where and why carp move. This allows control efforts to be targeted and more efficient.

Direct observation of fish by divers or video provides information on habitat use, movements and biotic interactions, but it is not possible to record physiological data. Diving and video observations are restricted to shallow waters with adequate light and/or small areas.

Telemetry is a step forward in the study of animal behaviour in the wild. Telemetry involves the wireless transfer of information by radio, digital, ultrasonic/acoustic or infrared signals from transmitters attached or implanted into animals to a remote receiver system. Telemetry improves our understanding of carp distribution, habitat preferences, home ranges and migration requirements by allowing us to monitor their location, behaviour and physiology continuously and individually in uncontrolled environments.

This factsheet explores the use of radio telemetry in supporting carp control programs.

Produced by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre as part of the PestSmart series.

Reference type Fact Sheet
Documents

CPFS9 Radio tracking as a support tool of carp control methods   [800 kb PDF]

Author Invasive Animals CRC
Year 2014
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 4
ISBN/ISSN PestSmart code: CPFS9
Control method Judas Technique
Region Australia - national
Links

PestSmart Toolkit carp page:  www.pestsmart.org.au/pest-animal-species/european-carp/

Pathways to adoption of Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 as a biological control agent for carp in Australia

KHVPathtoAdoption_coverThis report outlines the approval process required  for Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) to be used as a biological control agent for carp in Australia. It discusses the relevant legislation, safety and efficacy assessments, registration process and recommendations.

There are a number of statutory processes that need to be satisfied to obtain approval for the release of a biological control agent in Australia. The course to be followed also depends to some degree on the nature of the control agent and also the target organism. The use of a virus as the control agent will require approvals under the Quarantine Act 1908 (for importation and release of the virus) and the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC) (for release of the virus into the environment). It would also be appropriate to seek approvals under the Biological Control Act 1984 (BA) because of the structured public consultation and indemnity provisions that this legislation contains. The latter legislation has not always been used for biological control agents, particularly for plants. However in cases where it is likely that there will be conflicts of interest it would appear most appropriate to use this legislation. For example, it was used for assessment of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD) in the 1990’s and was particularly valuable in terms of the structured public consultation process.

Produced by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre as part of the PestSmart series.

Reference type Report
Secondary title PestSmart
Author Wayne Fulton
Year 2013
Place published Canberra
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 53
ISBN/ISSN Web ISBN: 978-1-921777-70-7
Control method Biological Control
Region Australia - national
Documents Pathways to adoption of Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 as a biological control agent for carp in Australia   [840 kb PDF]
Links PestSmart toolkit: Carp - www.pestsmart.org.au/pestsmart/carp/
PearlCichlid

Rapid response to new fish incursions

PFFS4Some introduced freshwater fish species have had devastating impacts on Australia’s native freshwater fish species and other aquatic life and ecosystems. Introduced or ‘alien’ fish usually have a high rate of reproduction, broad environmental tolerances, and are difficult to manage. Prevention, preparedness, and incident response activities, (including quarantine/border control, risk assessments, training, containment, eradication) help stop new fish species from establishing populations in the wild. Waterway, biosecurity or fisheries managers can take a risk assessment approach to guide their decisions about how and when to respond to the discovery or an ‘incursion’ of a new fish species.

Produced by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre as part of the PestSmart series.

Reference type Fact Sheet
Author Invasive Animals CRC
Year 2014
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 2
ISBN/ISSN PestSmart code: PFFS4
Control method Integrated Pest Management
Region Australia - national
Documents

PFFS4: Rapid response to new fish incursions  [400 kb PDF]

Links

Exploitable biological vulnerabilities of common carp

CarpVulnerabilities_coverThis project synthesises the outputs of various projects supported by the Freshwater Products and Strategies Program of the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre (IA CRC) in order to assess weaknesses of carp that can be exploited for their control.
Some of the key vulnerabilities identified that may contribute to carp management in Australia include:

Limited number of carp spawning sites:
It was found that although adult carp populations were widespread and abundant across the MDB; these populations were supported by a limited number of areas where juveniles were presen. This suggests carp reproduction is localised and restricted to a relatively small number of ‘hotspots’ within the MDB. Such identification of hotspots allows carp  control to be targeted at a key number of recruitment sources rather than scattered over tens of thousands of river kilometres.

Limited carp movement:
It was found that adult carp move at relatively small scales between sub-catchments in the MDB, particularly in low-flow conditions. Limited adult carp movement suggests there is strong potential for using cost-effective, targeted physical, chemical and/or biological control strategies at local and regional scales since control of adult carp may be sustained in certain areas by consistent methods that prevent either re-colonisation of juveniles or the reproduction of new colonisers.

Innate behaviours:
Research confirmed that carp have innate behaviours. Juvenile and adult carp migrate annually between river and wetland habitats for spawning from early August onwards. During spawning times, carp were attracted to flowing water and moved upstream towards the source of the flow. Carp also had an innate ability to push past or jump over barriers, even in shallow waters < 40 cm. Therefore carp control strategies that focus on intercepting and harvesting carp at wetland entrances are particularly desirable as migrating carp are vulnerable to trapping.

Genetic structure:
Within the Murray-Darling Basin, three discernible strains of carp were identified descendant from the European/central-Asian subspecies Cyprinus carpio carpio. Most importantly the three strains were found in distinct locations within the regional scale. The identification of specific locations for carp strains within catchments builds upon the evidence that there are discrete management units that could be routinely targeted at the local scale for carp control programs.

Reference type Report
Secondary title PestSmart
Author Gehrig SL and Thwaites LA
Year 2013
Place published Canberra
Publisher SARDI Aquatic Sciences
Institution Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 75
ISBN/ISSN Web ISBN: 978-1-921777-71-4
Region Australia - national
Documents Exploitable biological vulnerabilities of common carp  [2.4 Mb PDF]
Links PestSmart toolkit: Carp - www.pestsmart.org.au/pestsmart/carp/

Carp removal in Tasmania

CPCS5_coverCarp were first detected in Tasmania in 1975 when they were found in more than 30 small farm dams on the northwest coast. Specific noxious fish legislation was enacted in response and an eradication campaign using the fish poison rotenone was initiated. The populations in these dams were successfully eliminated. In 1995, carp were again found in Tasmania in two popular recreational trout fishing waters (lakes Sorell and Crescent), most likely introduced by people illegally using carp as live bait.

A case study on the attempted eradication of carp from Tasmanian lakes. Produced by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre as part of the PestSmart series.

Reference type Fact Sheet
Author Invasive Animals CRC
Year 2014
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 4
ISBN/ISSN PestSmart code: CPCS5
Control method Integrated Pest Management
Region TAS
Links

PestSmart Toolkit carp page

Documents

CPCS5 PestSmart Case Study: Carp removal in Tasmania   [580kb PDF]

Carp pheromone attractant trials

CPCS4_coverPheromones are chemicals produced naturally by fish to trigger a social response in other fish of the same species,  such as a spawning aggregation. Scientists at the University of Minnesota have been working on identifying carp pheromones and developing products containing these chemicals, which can be used to manipulate carp behaviour and potentially assist in controlling carp populations.

The Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre (IA CRC) funded research that found the male carp sex  pheromone to be sex-specific and powerful. The research also found that ovulating female carp release a  prostaglandin-based attractant for males and that non-ovulating females can be primed with a synthetic dose of prostaglandin to release the attractant. This synthetic prostaglandin can be implanted in a slow-release capsule in the  fish, causing the female carp to produce their attractant pheromone for a longer period than usual (up to two weeks).

Case study on trials to investigate using carp pheromone attractant for carp control in NSW and Tasmania. Produced by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre as part of the PestSmart series.

Reference type Fact Sheet
Author Invasive Animals CRC
Year 2014
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 4
ISBN/ISSN PestSmart code: CPCS4
Control method Integrated Pest Management
Region Australia - national
Links
Documents

PestSmart Case Study: Carp pheromone attractant trials  [700 kb PDF]

StuartMitchell_carp1

Pheromone attractants as a means of carp control

CPFS8_coverCarp (Cyprinus carpio) are one of the most damaging invasive fishes in Australian shallow lakes, wetlands and rivers. Techniques currently available to control this species are generally labour intensive and unlikely to have long-term benefits unless persisted with longterm.

An important strategy for the control of carp is to enhance our understanding of their behaviours and vulnerabilities  to improve the efficiency of control methods. For example, the success of existing control methods, such as trapping, can  be increased by ‘baiting’ traps using various carp-attracting options.

This factsheet explores chemical-based environmental and sensory attractants, which may potentially direct carp  behaviour and movements.

Produced by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre as part of the PestSmart series.

Reference type Fact Sheet
Author Invasive Animals CRC
Year 2014
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 2 pp
ISBN/ISSN PestSmart code: CPFS8
Control method Integrated Pest Management
Region Australia - national
Links
Documents

PestSmart Factsheet: pheromone attractants as a means of carp control  [450kb PDF]

Carp surveys of the Logan and Albert Rivers Catchment, 2006-2009

CarpSurvey_coverIn 2006, a benchmarking fisheries assessment survey found that the Logan and Albert rivers catchment was heavily infested with carp. Benchmarking entailed electrofishing surveys at 28 sites across the catchment. The purpose was to document the status of carp and native fish species in the rivers before implementing carp management actions.

In 2007, research began into the cost effectiveness of a range of carp management strategies in parts of the catchment. As part of this research, we repeated electrofishing surveys at 18 of the 28 benchmarking sites in 2007. Heavy rains and a series of high-flow events prevented repeat sampling at the remaining ten sites. The repeated surveys were designed to detect changes in fish assemblages and habitat conditions due to both environmental variables and carp management actions. Treatment and control sites were sampled to assess the role of these factors.

In 2009, the research program on carp management strategies was completed and we assessed changes in the fish assemblages based on a final fisheries assessment survey. We electrofished at 17 sites encompassing areas where there had been intense carp removal, control areas where there had been no carp removal, and areas where carp had been removed in previous years. The survey results, presented in this report, detail the distribution, biomass and density of carp in the catchment and enable the impact of carp management activities to be assessed.

Reference type Report
Secondary title PestSmart Toolkit - Carp
Author Andrew Norris, Keith Chilcott, Michael Hutchison and Danielle Stewart
Year 2011
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Department Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre
Pages 31 pp
ISBN/ISSN Web ISBN: 978-1-921777-35-6
Control method Fishing
Region QLD
Documents Carp surveys of the Logan and Albert Rivers Catchment, 2006-2009 [ 770kb PDF ]
Links PestSmart Toolkit for carp:  www.pestsmart.org.au/pestsmart/carp/

Social drivers behind participation in pest fish-out competitions

SocialDrivers_coverIt is now widely accepted that it is important to understand the ‘human dimensions’ of wildlife management issues to achieve management goals (Conover 2002; Miller 2009). One of the key areas of interest within human dimensions is participation and uptake of management initiatives by the community. A clearer understanding of the drivers behind community participation will lead to better engagement with stakeholders and ultimately increase the uptake and success of management actions.

Many community groups are concerned about the impacts of pest fish, particularly carp, (Cypinus carpio) in their local waterways and want to actively address the issue. To combat the impacts and spread of these pest fish some groups have organised community ‘fish-out’ events.

The objectives of this project were to investigate the drivers, or reasons, behind participation in carp fish-out competitions and how participants perceive the presence of carp in the rivers. Competitors at six competitions were asked to complete a survey looking at their drivers behind participation, perceived impacts of carp and demographics.

Published by the Invasive Animals CRC as part of the PestSmart Toolkit series.

Reference type Report
Documents Social drivers behind participation in pest fish-out competitions [ 630kb PDF ]
Links PestSmart Toolkit for carp:  www.pestsmart.org.au/pestsmart/carp/
Secondary title PestSmart Toolkit
Author Andrew Norris and Guy Ballard
Year 2013
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Department Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre
Pages 39 pp
ISBN/ISSN ISSD: 978-1-921777-66-0
Control method Fishing

The role of fishing competitions in pest fish management

Carp (Cyprinus carpio) are one of at least 34 freshwater fish species introduced into Australia that have established self-sustaining populations (Lintermans 2004). Carp are now the most abundant large freshwater fish in the Murray–Darling Basin, comprising up to 90% of fish biomass in some locations, and are the dominant species in many fish communities in south-eastern Australia (Reid and Harris 1997, Brown et al 2003).

Many community groups are concerned about the detrimental impacts carp are having in their local waterways, and some groups have organised ‘fish-out’ events to actively address the issue. It is well known that fishing pressure can run down fish stocks in a river (Templeton 1995), but it remains unclear as to whether community-based fish-out events have a significant impact on their target species. This project quantified the percentage of carp population removed in three ‘fish-out’ competitions in the Queensland portion of the Murray–Darling Basin.

At each competition, a series of monitoring sites were established. Before the events began, carp were captured at these sites via electrofishing, marked with dart tags and released. The competition catch and post-event electrofishing enabled the carp population size at each site to be estimated from tag return rates using the Lincoln–Peterson method. Population reductions from both the competition angling and the subsequent electrofishing were calculated. A total of 1006 carp were tagged with an overall tag return of 12% for the whole project.

The results demonstrated that carp angling competitions are not very effective as a direct form of carp management. The removal efforts occurred over large areas, resulting in low angling pressure and removal rates. Population reductions were observed in the range of 0.5%–1.8% across the competition areas. In comparison, removal via boat electrofishing resulted in a carp population reduction of 8.3%–16.1%. When compared to electrofishing, the catch per unit of effort (CPUE) of competition angling was found to be nearly 100 times less in terms of carp caught per man hour. We conclude that the way these events are currently run, they are unlikely to have any significant impact on local carp population numbers.

Carp fishing competitions do, however, have a range of less tangible management benefits. The events help educate the wider community on the detrimental impacts of pest fish, raise awareness and ownership of the pest fish issue and provide a social focal point for smaller regional communities. The competitions can also generate money, which can be directed into native fish restocking, river restoration or funding contractors to remove carp in high-value areas.

Secondary title PestSmart Toolkit
Reference type Report
Author Andrew Norris, Keith Chilcott and Michael Hutchison
Year 2013
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Department Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
Pages 45 pp
ISBN/ISSN ISSD: 978-1-921777-65-3
Control method Fishing
Region QLD
Documents The role of fishing competitions in pest fish management [ 960kb PDF ]
Links  

Daughterless carp

page1Carp are prolific breeders. A single female carp can produce upward of 1.5 million eggs per year. This means that typical control programs that concentrate on physical removal of the fish or that target individual spawning events are unlikely to have an impact, except on a local scale. Sophisticated modelling exercises support this.

With funding from the Murray-Darling Basin Authority (MDBA) through the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre (IA CRC), CSIRO has been developing alternative and potentially more powerful means of controlling carp, by breeding into a carp population a mechanism that reduces the number of females and so radically reduces carp numbers within a few generations. This is the basis for ‘daughterless technology’.

Produced by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre as part of the PestSmart series.

Reference type Fact Sheet
Author Invasive Animals CRC
Year 2012
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 2 pp
ISBN/ISSN PestSmart code: CPFS2
Control method Fertility Control
Region Australia - national
Documents PestSmart Factsheet: Daughterless carp [360 kb PDF]
Links PestSmart Toolkit carp page
carp_boat_Tas

A manual for carp control: The Tasmanian model

TasCarp_coverThe Carp Management Program (CMP) was established within the Inland Fisheries Service (IFS) in 1995, in response to an incursion of Cyprinus carpio (carp) found in Lake Crescent, at Interlaken, in the central highlands of Tasmania. The incursion was contained to Lake Crescent and the upstream Lake Sorell. The integrated pest management strategies used have resulted in the successful eradication of carp from Lake Crescent and are ongoing in Lake Sorell.

This manual describes the progressive and integrated approaches that were employed to control/eradicate carp in Tasmania and that are likely to be of relevance elsewhere.

Author Diggle J, Patil J and Wisniewski C
Year 2012
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 34
ISBN/ISSN Web ISBN: 978-1-921777-52-3
Control method Integrated Pest Management
Region TAS
Documents

A manual for carp control: The Tasmanian model [2Mb PDF]

Links

PestSmart toolkit: Carp - www.pestsmart.org.au/pestsmart/carp/

Feral Photos 2011

These images were entries in the first-ever Invasive Animals CRC’s Feral Photos photography competition held in 2011. The competition was initiated to help improve levels of awareness among members of the community, who have observed the presence of pest animals in their environment. The photos illustrate the significant diversity of pests we have in Australia and entries were received from across each State & Territory.
WARNING: Some people may find some of the following images confronting or distressing.

Click on the thumbnails to view a larger image.

See the website www.invasiveanimals.com/feral-photos for more information.

Validating the age of carp from the northern Murray-Darling Basin

Being able to accurately age carp is important for modelling population dynamics and potential response to various control strategies. This study examined the use of oxytetracycline (OTC) and otolith (ear bone) sampling to determine the formation of bone growth rings and in turn estimate the age of carp populations in the northern Murray–Darling Basin (MDB).

OTC leaves a mark in bony tissue that can be used as a reference point to analyse the formation of subsequent growth rings, known as ‘check marks’. The number of check marks that appear over a known time period can then be used to determine the age of the fish. In carp populations in the southern MDB, check marks are known to form annually. However, whether this occurs in the subtropical environment of the northern MDB had not been examined before this project. Validating this ageing method will enable population modelling to be applied to the whole MDB and assist in carp management.

Secondary title PestSmart toolkit - carp
Author Hutchison M, McLennan M, Chilcott K, Norris A and Stewart D
Year 2012
Place published Canberra
Publisher Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre
Institution Invasive Animals CRC
Department Freshwater Products and Strategies
Pages 24 pp
ISBN/ISSN Web ISBN: 978-1-921777-48-6
Region Australia - national
Documents Validating the age of carp from the northern Murray-Darling Basin [1 Mb PDF]
Links http://www.pestsmart.org.au/pestsmart/carp/
carp_aggregation

Carp herpesvirus as a biological control for carp in Australia

CPFS7coverIntroduction

Carp (Cyprinus carpio) are not native to Australia, but they now dominate fish communities throughout many inland waterways. Widespread  eradication of these established populations would be difficult, costly and complicated. Recently, cyprinid herpesvirus, commonly known as carp herpesvirus (CyHV-3), has been proposed as a potential biological control method for carp in Australia. It has the potential to substantially reduce Australian carp populations, with impacts likely to be increased when used in an integrated carp management control program.

About CyHV-3

Common carp, Cyprinus carpio, the species-specific target of carp herpesvirus CyHV-3
Common carp, Cyprinus carpio, the species-specific target of carp herpesvirus CyHV-3

CyHV-3 is highly specific to carp, including the ‘koi’ ornamental variety, and only causes death in carp, with no other fish known to be affected, even the closely related goldfish. Carp-goldfish hybrids appear to be much less susceptible to CyHV-3 than pure carp. Australia does not have any native fish species that are closely related to carp, so they are not susceptible to CyHV-3. There are approximately 100 other known herpesviruses in other species, with at least one herpesvirus for each species studied. Most people would have been infected by at least one of the eight known human herpesviruses, such as the one that causes common cold sores. CyHV-3 does not affect humans.

CyHV-3 first appeared in Israel in 1998, although it may have appeared in the United Kingdom or Germany a little earlier. It spread rapidly to other parts of the world including Japan, Indonesia and North America. Mortality (death) rates of 70–100% were recorded in all age groups of carp in several countries. It now has a worldwide distribution with the exception of South America, Australia and New Zealand.

CyHV-3 is a water-borne virus and is highly contagious. Viral particles in water may be active for up to three days. New outbreaks of the disease can be expected when fish are stressed or in large aggregations. Clinical signs of disease, including mortality, are most common when water temperatures are 18°–28°C. There is little, or no disease above 30°C or below 15°C.

The first clinical signs of CyHV-3 infection are reddening of the gills, excess mucus on the gills and skin, darkening of the skin, and eventually patches of skin necrosis (tissue death). Signs of disease occur within 7-14 days of infection (depending on water temperature), and death then occurs within a day or so.

Carp that survive infection are infected for life, and, when stressed, may die or show signs of disease again. These fish are capable of spreading CyHV-3 to other carp. There is no evidence that the virus can multiply in other fish, although virus may be inadvertently transported on the surface of other fish for a short period of time.

Current research

The use of CyHV-3 as a potential carp biological control agent is being assessed by researchers at CSIRO’s Australian Animal Health Laboratory with funding from the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre. This research has a number of objectives:

  • confirming that CyHV-3 is lethal to carp in Australia
  • confirming that CyHV-3 does not threaten Australian native species (thirteen native species of fish have been tested, along with rainbow trout, and a variety of other animals that might live in, or drink, virusinfected water. None of these animals are affected, or infected, by the virus)
  • confirming that CyHV-3 acts on all sizes of carp (although it is known that young carp are extremely sensitive to the virus)
  • confirming that the virus is transmitted directly from infected carp to non-infected carp
  • investigating the effect of environmental conditions (eg changes in water temperature) on the potency of the virus
  • investigating any possible cross reactions due to other related viruses that may already be present (such as cyprinid herpesvirus CyHV-1 or CyHV-2)
  • investigating characteristics of the likely spread of the virus to help plan a program for its release into the environment.

Planning for CyHV-3 release

CyHV3_quoteCyHV-3 has the potential to be an effective biological control agent for carp. However, before CyHV-3 can be released it must go through a formal evaluation process coordinated by the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA). This will require more detailed scientific assessment and the development of a release and monitoring strategy. The plans for further work to begin in July 2016 are as follows:

  • Science to support the release of CyHV-3 in Australia — CSIRO will test a few further native species for susceptibility to CyHV-3. CSIRO will also develop methods to monitor the spread of the virus if it is eventually released into natural waterways. It will also be important to develop other control methods to complement the activity of the virus. These may include genetic strategies for carp control, but new generations of CyHV-3 will also be required.
  • CyHV-3 release and monitoring strategy — A release strategy will be designed to take advantage of known vulnerabilities of carp. For example, the onset of the disease is related to temperature and to stress levels in the fish, so it will be important to choose the right time and the right site for release of the virus. Fish massing in large numbers for spawning would be an ideal target for the virus. A monitoring and evaluation strategy will be designed to track the spread and impact of the virus.
  • CyHV-3 registration application package — through close liaison with the APVMA, the information requirements for registration of CyHV-3 will be determined. All of the information needed will be assembled and the package will go through the APVMA risk evaluation and consultation process. Approval for CyHV-3 release in Australia will depend on funding and research progress. If approvals are granted, the target for release of CyHV-3 is within the 2017-2019 time-frame.

Further information

  1. Saunders G, Cooke B, McColl K, Shine R and Peacock T (2007). Modern approaches for the biological control of vertebrate pests: An Australian perspective. Biological Control 52:288–295.
  2. McColl, KA, Sunarto A, Williams LM and Crane M (2007). Koi herpesvirus: Dreaded pathogen or white knight? Aquaculture Health International 9:4-6.
  3. Bretzinger A, Fischer-Scherl T, Oumouna M, Hoffman R and Truyen U (1999). Mass mortalities in koi carp, Cyprinus carpio, associated with gill and skin disease. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 19:182-185.
  4. McColl KA, Cooke BD, and Sunarto A (2014). Viral biocontrol of invasive vertebrates: lessons from the past applied to cyprinid herpesvirus 3 and carp (Cyprinus carpio) control in Australia. Biological Control 72:109- 117.
Documents

Download:  PestSmart Factsheet: Carp herpesvirus as a biological control for carp  [ 300kb PDF ]

Links
Author Invasive Animals CRC
Year 2012
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 2 pp
ISBN/ISSN PestSmart code: CPFS7
Control method Biological Control
Region Australia - national

Introduction and distribution of carp in Australia

The first attempts to introduce carp to Australia were made in the late 1850s. The first of these into Tasmania in 1858 was not successful. An introduction to Victoria in 1859 succeeded in establishing a population in the Botanic Gardens in Melbourne, which persisted until 1962. Carp do not appear to have spread from there. These introductions reflect the community attitudes at the time, with attempts being made by acclimatisation groups to introduce many European species. For example, brown trout were first successfully introduced to Tasmania from the United Kingdom in 1864 and a variety of other new plants and animals were also imported to provide both food and recreation for colonial residents.

Produced by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre as part of the PestSmart series.

Documents PestSmart Factsheet: Introduction and distribution of carp in Australia
Links
Author Invasive Animals CRC
Year 2012
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 2 pp
ISBN/ISSN PestSmart code: CPFS6
Region Australia - national

Impacts of carp in Australia

Are carp a genuine cause of environmental damage in Australia, or are they merely a symptom of the poor health of our inland waters that has resulted from other causes? It is certainly true that carp are very good at exploiting degraded systems due to their ability to tolerate a wide range of water conditions. However, it doesn’t necessarily follow that they prefer degraded conditions as is often claimed. It also does not mean that they caused the habitat degradation in the first place. What they will do is make it more difficult to restore these systems to a healthy condition.

Produced by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre as part of the PestSmart series.

Documents PestSmart Factsheet: Impacts of carp in Australia
Links
Author Invasive Animals CRC
Year 2012
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 2 pp
ISBN/ISSN PestSmart code: CPFS5
Region Australia - national

Use of chemicals as poisons for pest fish control

Chemicals can be used to eradicate small, isolated populations of pest fish quickly (spot removal) and with a moderate cost, provided that the benefits clearly outweigh any harm to native species and the environment. There have been a number of attempts to control pest fish in Australia and almost half of these have included the use of chemicals (fish poisons are known as ‘piscicides’). Examples are the successful eradication of carp from Tasmania in the 1970s and from the Cooper Creek drainage in South Australia.

Produced by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre as part of the PestSmart series.

Documents PestSmart Factsheet: Use of chemicals as poisons for pest fish control
Links
Author Invasive Animals CRC
Year 2012
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 2 pp
ISBN/ISSN PestSmart code: PFFS1
Control method Poison / Toxin
Region Australia - national

Containment as a method for pest fish control

Containment and exclusion are critical actions in a rapid response to new pest fish incursions and in the ongoing management of established pest fish populations. Effective containment and exclusion limits the scale of potential environmental, social and economic impacts and reduces the area of management, thus reducing associated costs and resources. Physical and behavioural barriers can be used for fish containment and exclusion and their use is often an integral part of pest fish eradication and control programs.

Produced by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre as part of the PestSmart series.

Documents PestSmart Factsheet: Containment as a method for pest fish control
Links
Author Invasive Animals CRC
Year 2012
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 2 pp
ISBN/ISSN PestSmart code: PFFS2
Region Australia - national