Category Archives: Goat (Feral goat)

Uptake Update 2, 10.U.2 KI Demonstration Site

Covering about 4350 square km, Kangaroo Island is the third-largest offshore island in
Australia (after Tasmania and Melville Island) and lies 15 km off the South Australian
coast. Kangaroo Island is nationally important for biodiversity conservation, primary production and tourism, with nearly 50% of the native vegetation remaining. The Island is free of foxes and rabbits but has an abundance of other feral pests including pigs, goats, deer, and cats.

Repel the Invaders is a regionally-focused package of actions addressing priorities for
managing pests, diseases and problem animals threatening biodiversity and primary
production across Kangaroo Island. The program aims to prevent and detect new introductions of pests, diseases and problem animals to the Island as well as identify, monitor and manage pests already present.

Reference type Fact Sheet
Author Invasive Animals CRC
Date null
Year 2007
Institution Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre
Department Uptake Program
Pages 4
Notes Notes
Region SA
Links http://www.invasiveanimals.com/downloads/Uptake_Update_No2.pdf
Documents Uptake Update No2

South West Slopes Region Pest Management Strategy 2008-2011

Pest species are animals (including invertebrates) and plants that have negative environmental, economic and social impacts. In this document they are collectively referred to as pests. Pests are most commonly introduced species, though native species can become pests. In parks, pests may have impacts across the range of park values, including impacts on biodiversity, cultural heritage, catchment and scenic values.

Pests are among the greatest threats to biodiversity throughout Australia. In New South Wales, they have been identified as a threat to 657 of 945 (70%) species, populations and communities listed under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995; more than any other process except the destruction and disturbance of native vegetation. Minimising the impacts of pests on biodiversity is thus the main objective of NPWS pest management.

Pests can also have significant impacts on economic values of neighbouring lands. The NPWS seeks to address these impacts when setting management priorities and significant resources are committed towards landscape wide pest programs, including wild dogs.

Reference type Threat Abatement Plan or Management Strategy
Author NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
Date null
Year 2008
Publisher NSW Government
Institution NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
Department Department of Environment and Climate Change
Pages 40
Notes Notes
Control method Integrated Pest Management
Region NSW
Links http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/pestsweeds/southWestSlopesRpms.pdf http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/pestsweeds/RegionPestManagement.htm

Snowy Mountains and Resorts Region Pest Management Strategy 2008-2011

The development of Regional Pest Management Strategies (RPMS) provides NPWS with a strategic approach to pest management across NSW. The Strategy developed for each region provides a tool to broadly identify pest distribution and their associated impacts across the park system. It details priorities for each Region, including actions listed in the PAS and TAPs as well as other actions such as wild dog and feral pig control to protect neighbouring properties and site-based weed control and allows resources to be allocated to high priority programs. The RPMS also identifies the requirement for other plans or strategies, such as Wild Dog Plans or Bush Regeneration Plans, that provide a more detailed approach.

New pest species continue to establish in the environment either through the importation of new species into Australia or the escape of domestic plants and animals. Prevention and early detection followed by eradication is the most cost-effective way to minimise the impacts of new pests. The NPWS works with other agencies to prevent the introduction of new pests into the wild and to respond rapidly when new incursions occur. The response of NSW government agencies to new pests will be coordinated through the NSW Invasive Species Plan.

Reference type Threat Abatement Plan or Management Strategy
Author NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
Date null
Year 2007
Publisher NSW Government
Institution NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
Department Department of Environment and Climate Change
Pages 54
Notes Notes
Control method Integrated Pest Management
Region NSW
Links http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/pestsweeds/RegionPestManagement.htm http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/parks/snowyResortsRpms.pdf

Far South Coast Region Pest Management Strategy 2007-2010

The development of Regional Pest Management Strategies (RPMS) provides NPWS with a strategic approach to pest management across NSW. The Strategy developed for each region provides a tool to broadly identify pest distribution and their associated impacts across the park system. It details priorities for each Region, including actions listed in the PAS and TAPs as well as other actions such as wild dog and feral pig control to protect neighbouring properties and site-based weed control and allows resources to be allocated to high priority programs. The RPMS
also identifies the requirement for other plans or strategies, such as Wild Dog Plans or Bush Regeneration Plans, which provide a more detailed approach.

New pest species continue to establish in the environment either through the importation of new species into Australia or the escape of domestic plants and animals. Prevention and early detection followed by eradication is the most cost effective way to minimise the impacts of new pests. The NPWS works with other agencies to prevent the introduction of new pests into the wild and to respond rapidly when new incursions occur. The response of NSW government agencies to new pests will be coordinated through the NSW Invasive Species Plan.

Reference type Threat Abatement Plan or Management Strategy
Author NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
Date null
Year 2007
Publisher NSW Government
Institution NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
Department Department of Environment and Climate Change
Pages 51
Notes Notes
Control method Integrated Pest Management
Region NSW
Links http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/pestsweeds/RegionPestManagement.htm http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/parks/farSouthCoastRpms.pdf

South Coast Region Draft Pest Management Strategy 2008-2011

The development of Regional Pest Management Strategies (RPMS) provides NPWS with a strategic approach to pest management across NSW. The
strategy developed for each Region provides a tool to broadly identify pest distribution and their associated impacts across the park system. It details priorities for each Region, including actions listed in the PAS and TAPs as well as other actions such as wild dog and feral pig control to protect neighbouring properties and site-based weed control and allows resources to be allocated to high priority programs. The RPMS also identifies the requirement for other plans or strategies, such as Wild Dog Plans or Bush Regeneration Plans that provide a more detailed approach.

New pest species continue to establish in the environment either through the importation of new species into Australia or the escape of domestic plants and animals. Prevention and early detection followed by eradication is the most cost-effective way to minimise the impacts of new pests. The NPWS works with other agencies to prevent the introduction of new pests into the wild and to respond rapidly when new incursions occur. The response of NSW government agencies to new pests will be coordinated through the NSW Invasive Species Plan.

Reference type Threat Abatement Plan or Management Strategy
Author NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
Date null
Year 2008
Publisher NSW Government
Institution NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
Department Department of Environment and Climate Change
Pages 68
Notes Notes
Control method Integrated Pest Management
Region NSW
Links http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/pestsweeds/RegionPestManagement.htm http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/pestsweeds/southernRPMNov07.pdf

Feral goats in hard to access terrain

NatureCall Wildlife Management Solutions were contracted to recapture a herd of 22 goats that escaped from a farm 18 months prior. These animals were occupying difficult to access terrain which left herding out of the question. Stalking and tranquilization took place, 80% of the population has now been removed.
Images courtesy Steve Noy, NatureCall.
Email: steve@naturecall.com.au
Web: http://www.naturecall.com.au/

These image files may be freely downloaded and used without permission of the copyright holder for educational purposes only. If the image file is to be used for any other purpose other than educational use (including commercial purposes), permission must be obtained directly from the copyright holder.

Click on the thumbnail images below to view a larger image.

Reference type Image
Author NatureCall
Secondary Author Steve Noy
Date 03/01/2008
Year 2008
Secondary title NatureCall11.jpg; NatureCall12.jpg
Edition jpeg
Institution NatureCall Wildlife Management Solutions
Pages 72 dpi

The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales

PestAnimalThreatsNSW2007_coverAlien species (pest animals and weeds) are acknowledged widely as a major cause of global biodiversity decline. However, there are very few studies that have quantified the specific biodiversity at risk from alien species, or the alien species posing the threat. This lack of knowledge has hampered policy development and alien species management directed at biodiversity conservation.

This report quantifies the threat posed by alien animals (hereafter referred to as pest animals) on a broad cross-section of biodiversity in New South Wales. This assessment was achieved by examining the described threats to 972 threatened species in New South Wales, being those species (ie mammals, birds, fish, insects, plants, fungi and algae), populations and ecological communities listed under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 and the NSW Fisheries Management Act 1994; approximately half of which are also listed under the Commonwealth’s Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. Information on threats was compiled from a vast range of sources (spanning over 2000 documents) to establish the full range of threats to each species.

These data sources included NSW Scientific Committee determinations, fact sheets, threatened species books, recovery and threat abatement plans and scientific studies. Less than 2% of the data was derived from peer-reviewed scientific studies, highlighting the ongoing need for scientific research in this area. A total of 5666 threat descriptions were identified across all threatened species, many of which were similar in nature (ie they used different terms to describe the same threat), so a hierarchy and standard terms were developed to group threats of a similar nature, and to analyse the relative impact of each type of threat.

Reference type Report
Author Aaron J. Coutts-Smith, Paul S. Mahon, Mike Letnic and Paul O. Downey
Date null
Year 2007
Place published City
Publisher Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre.
Institution NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change
Pages 124 pp
Notes Notes
ISBN/ISSN Web ISBN 978-0-9803194-3-9
Region NSW
Documents

Download report

Goats (Capra hircus)

Feral goats occur in all states and territories except on the mainland of the Northern Territory. The main concentrations are in western New South Wales, southern Queensland, central eastern South Australia and Western Australia. Feral goats occur in a wide range of habitats but are not very successful where dingoes are present.

In the Endangered Species Protection Act 1992 the Commonwealth Government has listed ‘ competition and land degradation by feral goats’ as a Key Threatening Process to the survival of native species. Hence, the preparation and implementation of a ‘Threat Abatement Plan’.

Reference type Fact Sheet
Author Northern Territory Government
Date null
Year 2007
Institution Natural Resources, Environment and The Arts
Pages 1
Notes Notes
Region NT
Links http://www.nt.gov.au/nreta/wildlife/animals/exotic/goat.html

Judas goat being kitted out

Judas goat after being radio-collared, eartagged and measured prior to release.
This image file may be freely downloaded and used without permission of the copyright holder for educational purposes only. If the image file is to be used for any other purpose other than educational use (including commercial purposes), permission must be obtained directly from the copyright holder.
Click on the thumbnail below to view a larger image.

Reference type Image
Author Dr. Robert Henzell
Secondary Author Robert Henzell
Year 1985
Secondary title Henzell27.jpg
Edition Jpeg
Institution Animal and Plant Control Group, SA
Pages 300 dpi
Control method Judas Technique

Rangeland degradation due to feral goats and rabbits

This image was taken at Weekeroo Station, South Australia. The three main trunks of an almost-dead mulga (Acacia aneura) rest on the ground in the foreground, with two of them disappearing out of the frame on the right hand side of the photo. Growing up through the mulga is a skinny-stemmed narrow-leaved fuschia-bush (Eremophila alternifolia) that has been browsed by feral goats up to 1.8 metres off the ground, leaving only a small tuft of leaves at the top silhouetted against the sky. If it had been any smaller when the goats arrived, it would have been killed. A grove of bright light green bullock bush or rosewood (Alectryon oleifolius) can be seen in the middle distance, also browsed by feral goats to 1.8 metres off the ground. Behind them, and also on the left of the photo, are scattered mallee (Eucalyptus spp.), which are only lightly grazed. Note the absence of any regenerating trees or shrubs in the fore- and mid-ground of the picture, a symptom of overgrazing by domestic sheep, feral goats and wild rabbits.

This image file may be freely downloaded and used without permission of the copyright holder for educational purposes only. If the image file is to be used for any other purpose other than educational use (including commercial purposes), permission must be obtained directly from the copyright holder.
Click on the thumbnail below to view a larger image.

Reference type Image
Author Dr. Robert Henzell
Secondary Author Robert Henzell
Date null
Year 1996
Secondary title Henzell28.jpg
Edition Jpeg
Place published Image Location
Institution Animal and Plant Control Group, SA
Pages 300 dpi
Notes Notes
Region SA

Goats on cliff face

Two feral goats slowly negotiating an almost-sheer cliff face on Arkaroola, North Flinders Ranges, South Australia. A black and white goat is slightly above and to the right of the conspicuous white one. They would be missed during any normal mustering operation, and unless shot would form part of the residual population which would breed and reinfest the area.

This image file may be freely downloaded and used without permission of the copyright holder for educational purposes only. If the image file is to be used for any other purpose other than educational use (including commercial purposes), permission must be obtained directly from the copyright holder.
Click on the thumbnail below to view a larger image.

Reference type Image
Author Dr. Robert Henzell
Secondary Author Robert Henzell
Year 1980
Secondary title Henzell26.jpg
Edition Jpeg
Institution Animal and Plant Control Group, SA
Pages 300 dpi
Region SA

Goats in Adelaide Hills

Feral goats in the South Para Reservoir catchment reserve, Adelaide Hills, South Australia. 84 feral goats were present in 12 square kilometres of native forest and pine plantation. They were eradicated with the aid of Judas goats. This area is still free of feral goats more than 20 years later, despite their presence in another reservoir catchment reserve about 3 kilometres upstream and the presence of a scrub corridor along the river connecting the two catchments.

This image file may be freely downloaded and used without permission of the copyright holder for educational purposes only. If the image file is to be used for any other purpose other than educational use (including commercial purposes), permission must be obtained directly from the copyright holder.
Click on the thumbnail below to view a larger image.

Reference type Image
Author Dr. Robert Henzell
Secondary Author Robert Henzell
Date 02/01/1985
Year 1985
Secondary title Henzell25.jpg
Edition Jpeg
Place published South Para Reservoir catchment reserve, Adelaide Hills, South Australia
Institution Animal and Plant Control Group, SA
Pages 300 dpi
Control method Judas Technique
Region SA

Feral Goat habitat, South Australia

This series of images shows typical feral goat habitat in South Australia:

1. Feral goat habitat on Arkaroola in the North Flinders Ranges, South Australia. With limited road access, goat control is very difficult in terrain like this. Most control is by shooting from helicopters or by hunters on foot.
2&3. Inaccessible feral goat habitat, Vulkathunha-Gammon Ranges National Park, South Australia. Goat control is very difficult in terrain like this, only parts of which are accessible, and then only by foot or from the air.

These image files may be freely downloaded and used without permission of the copyright holder for educational purposes only. If the image file is to be used for any other purpose other than educational use (including commercial purposes), permission must be obtained directly from the copyright holder.
Click on the thumbnail below to view a larger image.

Reference type Image
Author Dr. Robert Henzell
Secondary Author Robert Henzell
Secondary title Henzell11.jpg; Henzell15.jpg; Henzell16.jpg;
Edition Jpeg
Institution Animal and Plant Control Group, SA
Pages 300 dpi
Region SA

Aborigines mustering goats

Aborigines on horseback mustering feral goats in Worturpa Pound, in the heart of the mountains in the Vulkathunha-Gammon Ranges National Park, South Australia. The team mustered goats mainly from the more open, flatter country, sometimes aided by traps erected around water points. The musterers would come back for another attempt after several weeks or months, when some of the goats previously left behind in inaccessible areas had come out onto easier ground. Over several years, this process substantially reduced the number of goats in the park.
This image file may be freely downloaded and used without permission of the copyright holder for educational purposes only. If the image file is to be used for any other purpose other than educational use (including commercial purposes), permission must be obtained directly from the copyright holder.
Click on the thumbnail below to view a larger image.

Reference type Image
Author Dr Robert Henzell
Secondary Author Robert Henzell
Date 09/24/1980
Year 1980
Secondary title Henzell1.jpg
Edition Jpeg
Place published Worturpa Pound, Vulkathunha-Gammon Ranges National Park, South Australia
Institution Animal and Plant Control Group, SA
Pages 300 dpi
Region SA

Aerial goat muster, Flinders Ranges SA

This series of images shows an aerial muster of a naturally-occurring herd of feral goats in inaccessible terrain in the North Flinders Ranges, South Australia.
These image files may be freely downloaded and used without permission of the copyright holder for educational purposes only. If the image file is to be used for any other purpose other than educational use (including commercial purposes), permission must be obtained directly from the copyright holder.
Click on the thumbnail below to view a larger image.

The images show (in order):
1. Within a few hours of this first photo being taken, the herd had broken up into smaller groups. This herd of 1100 goats were some of the 2000 estimated by aerial survey to have been present in 50 square kilometres of country with no roads and very poor ground access. Most of the area was rougher than shown in this photo. The area was aerially mustered with a Cessna 172 the same morning as these photos were taken, and 1600 goats were removed.
2. Goats appear to feel safe in high places, and can be difficult to dislodge. Here the plane buzzes goats which are slow to move, forcing them off the ridge and onto lower ground.
3. These 7 goats would not move off the ridge, despite being buzzed closely and repeatedly by the plane. Their coats could be seen blowing in the draft created by the plane as it flew within a few metres of them and turned sharply to one side.
4. In this image, a Cessna 172 is bringing the scattered goats into a single mob and driving them in the desired direction by flying around them in a U-shaped flight pattern. This pattern focusses them and induces them to seek to escape the U through the opening at the top. A long line of goats can be seen moving up the hill in the left of the photo. More can be seen on the ridge in the foreground, and elsewhere. Unless the goats refuse to move, the plane keeps its distance to avoid undue disturbance and promote orderly movement.
5. Here the mob is splitting in two, up the two sides of a rocky valley. This adds to the time and cost of the muster, as the goats must be reaggregated into a single mob.
6. In this image, the Cessna 172 has aggregated the scattered goats into a single mob and brought them close to more accessible terrain, where they will be handed over to a ground crew.
7. A ground crew on three motorbikes in the lower part of the picture has taken over control of the mob after a plane has aggregated the scattered goats into a single mob and brought them into more accessible terrain.
8. In this image, a ground crew on motorbikes and assisted by dogs has taken control of the herd after a plane has aggregated the scattered goats into a single mob and brought them into more accessible terrain. They are driving the goats about 13 kilometres to a set of yards from which they will be trucked out the following day to an abattoir.
9. 1600 feral goats in holding yards at the Umberatana shearing shed, North Flinders Ranges, South Australia. These goats comprised about 80% of the 2000 estimated by aerial survey to have been originally present in the 50 square kilometre area that was mustered.

Reference type Image
Author Dr. Robert Henzell
Secondary Author Robert Henzell
Date 08/09/1979
Year 1979
Secondary title Henzell2.jpg, Henzell3.jpg, Henzell4.jpg, Henzell5.jpg, Henzell6.jpg, Henzell7.jpg, Henzell8.jpg, Henzell9.jpg, Henzell10.jpg
Edition Jpeg
Place published Image Location
Institution Animal and Plant Control Group, SA
Pages 300 dpi
Notes Notes
Region SA

Prioritizing the world’s islands for vertebrate-eradication programmes

In the last 400 years, more species have become extinct on small islands than on continents. Yet, scant attention has hitherto been paid to prioritizing island restorations. Nevertheless, considerable conservation effort is now devoted to removing a major cause of these extinctions ? invasive alien vertebrates. Because modern techniques allow the clearance of invasive vertebrates from quite large islands (up to 1000 km2), many islands are candidates for restoration. A robust strategy for allocating available funds is urgently needed. It requires, for each candidate island, an objective estimation of conservation gain and a method for predicting its financial cost. Our earlier work showed that a good first-pass estimate of vertebrate eradication costs can be made using just island area and target species. Costs increase with island area, while rodents are more expensive per unit area than ungulates. Here, we develop a method for assessing the conservation benefit of a proposed eradication and apply the method to threatened birds, but not other taxa. The method, combining information on how threatened a species is, on the impact of alien vertebrates on that species and on the islands on which the species occurs, allows us to present a means of determining which islands yield the greatest conservation benefit per unit of expenditure on vertebrate eradication. In general, although greater overall benefit would accrue to birds from eradication of invasive vertebrates on larger islands, benefit per unit of expenditure is the highest on relatively small islands, and we identify those that should be priority targets for future eradications. Crucially, this quantitative assessment provides considerable efficiency gains over more opportunistic targeting of islands. The method could be adapted to prioritize islands on a regional or national basis, or with different conservation gains in mind.

Reference type Journal Article
Author M. de L. Brooke, G. M. Hilton & T. L. F. Martins
Year 2007
Secondary title Animal Conservation
Volume 10
Number 3
Pages 380?390

Vegetation damage due to feral goat browsing.

Vegetation damage due to feral goat browsing. Image supplied by NSW DPI.
This image file may be freely downloaded and used without permission of the copyright holder for educational purposes only. If the image file is to be used for any other purpose other than educational use (including commercial purposes), permission must be obtained directly from the copyright holder.
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Reference type Image
Author NSW DPI
Secondary Author NSW DPI
Year 1993
Secondary title GoatbrowseGundabooka93.jpg
Edition Jpeg
Institution NSW Department of Primary Industries
Department Vertebrate Pest Research Unit
Pages Yes

Feral goat trapping

Images show:
1. Feral goats entering a jump-down trap built around Muckety Dam in Danggali Conservation Park, South Australia. The dam, in near-level terrain, was made by excavating a large hole in the soil forming the bed of a shallow watercourse.
2. Feral goats caught in a jump-down trap at Gleeson Well, Vulkathunha-Gammon Ranges National Park, South Australia. The goats jumped down off the stone ramp to get a drink, and did not find their way out. The trough was supplied with water from a nearby tank kept full by a windmill on a bore. Note the overgrazed, bare ground around the trap.

These image files may be freely downloaded and used without permission of the copyright holder for educational purposes only. If the image file is to be used for any other purpose other than educational use (including commercial purposes), permission must be obtained directly from the copyright holder.
Click on the thumbnail below to view a larger image.

Reference type Image
Author Dr. Robert Henzell
Secondary Author R. Henzell
Date null
Secondary title Henzell17.jpg; Henzell18.jpg
Edition Jpeg
Place published Image Location
Institution Animal and Plant Control Group, SA
Pages 300 dpi
Notes Notes
Control method Trapping
Region SA

Feral goat herds

Images show herds of feral goats on hillside, grazing and running. Images supplied by NSW DPI.
These image files may be freely downloaded and used without permission of the copyright holder for educational purposes only. If the image file is to be used for any other purpose other than educational use (including commercial purposes), permission must be obtained directly from the copyright holder.
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Reference type Image
Author NSW DPI
Secondary Author NSW DPI
Date null
Secondary title Pandorapass98.jpg; goat_grazing.jpg; GoatsDeerina93.jpg
Edition Jpeg
Place published Image Location
Institution NSW Department of Primary Industries
Department Vertebrate Pest Research Unit
Pages Yes
Notes Notes

Feral goats herding

Image shows mustering 1600 feral goats in the North Flinders Ranges, South Australia. Photo taken 1979 by R. Henzell. The goats were forced out of rugged, inaccessible terrain with a light aircraft, and then transferred to a ground crew in more open terrain. The photo was taken after the transfer. The ground crew, on motorbikes and helped by dogs, mustered them 13 kilometres to specially reinforced holding pens at the Umberatana shearing sheds. There was good vehicle access to this point, and they were trucked out to an abattoir. Image supplied by Robert Henzell.
This image file may be freely downloaded and used without permission of the copyright holder for educational purposes only. If the image file is to be used for any other purpose other than educational use (including commercial purposes), permission must be obtained directly from the copyright holder.
Click on the thumbnail below to view a larger image.

Reference type Image
Author Dr Robert Henzell
Secondary Author Robert Henzell
Date null
Year 1979
Secondary title herding_goats.jpg
Edition Jpeg
Place published Image Location
Pages Yes
Notes Notes
Region SA