Category Archives: Cane toad

Cane toad density 2007 – ACT

Map shows the density of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in the Australian Capital Territory, 2007. Compiled by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre and the National Land and Water Resources Audit, in collaboration with the Australian, State and Territory governments.

Click on the thumbnail image below to open the full map file.

Reference type Image
Author IA CRC & NLWRA
Secondary Author Peter West
Year 2007
Secondary title canetoad_density_ACT.jpg
Edition jpg
Institution Invasive Animals CRC
Region ACT

Cane toad density 2007 – Queensland

Map shows the density of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in Queensland, 2007. Compiled by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre and the National Land and Water Resources Audit, in collaboration with the Australian, State and Territory governments.

Click on thumbnail image below to open full map file.

Reference type Image
Author IA CRC & NLWRA
Secondary Author Peter West
Year 2007
Secondary title canetoad_density_qld07.jpg
Edition jpg
Institution Invasive Animals CRC
Region QLD

Cane toad density 2007 – Victoria

Map shows the density of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in Victoria, 2007. Compiled by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre and the National Land and Water Resources Audit, in collaboration with the Australian, State and Territory governments.

Click on the thumbnail image below to open the full map file

Reference type Image
Author IA CRC & NLWRA
Secondary Author Peter West
Year 2007
Secondary title canetoad_density_vic07.jpg
Edition jpg
Institution Invasive Animals CRC
Region VIC

Cane toad density 2007 – Western Australian

Map shows the density of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in Western Australia, 2007. Compiled by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre and the National Land and Water Resources Audit, in collaboration with the Australian, State and Territory governments.

Click on the thumbnail image below to open the full map file.

Reference type Image
Author IA CRC & NLWRA
Secondary Author Peter West
Year 2007
Secondary title canetoad_density_wa07.jpg
Edition jpg
Institution Invasive Animals CRC
Region WA

Cane Toad density 2007 – Tasmania

Map shows the density of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in Tasmania, 2007. Compiled by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre and the National Land and Water Resources Audit, in collaboration with the Australian, State and Territory governments.

Click on the thumbnail image below to open the full map file

Reference type Image
Author IA CRC & NLWRA
Secondary Author Peter West
Year 2007
Secondary title canetoad_density_tas07.jpg
Edition jpg
Institution Invasive Animals CRC
Region TAS

Cane toad density 2007 – South Australia

Map shows the density of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in South Australia, 2007. Compiled by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre and the National Land and Water Resources Audit, in collaboration with the Australian, State and Territory governments.

Click on the thumbnail image below to open the full map file.

Reference type Image
Author IA CRC & NLWRA
Secondary Author Peter West
Year 2007
Secondary title canetoad_density_sa07.jpg
Edition jpg
Institution Invasive Animals CRC
Region SA

Cane toad density 2007 – New South Wales

Map shows the density of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in NSW 2006/2007. Compiled by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre and the National Land and Water Resources Audit, in collaboration with the Australian, State and Territory governments.

Click on thumbnail image below to open full map file.

Reference type Image
Author IA CRC & NLWRA
Secondary Author Peter West
Year 2007
Secondary title canetoad_density_nsw07.jpg
Edition jpg
Institution Invasive Animals CRC
Region NSW

Cane Toad National Maps 2006/07

This series of maps shows the occurrence, abundance and distribution of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in Australia, 2006/07. Click on thumbnail image above to open full map file.

Originally published in: West, P. (2008). Assessing Invasive Animals in Australia 2008. National Land & Water Resources Audit and Invasive Animals CRC, Canberra. (See web link below to access full report).

  • Map 1: Occurrence
  • Map 2: Distribution
  • Map 3: Abundance
  • Map 4: Occurrence, Abundance & Distribution
Reference type Image
Author IA CRC & NLWRA
Secondary Author Peter West
Date null
Year 2007
Secondary title cane_toad_NatMap_Occ07.jpg; cane_toad_NatMap_Dist07.jpg; cane_toad_NatMap_Abund07.jpg; cane_toad_NatMap_OAD07.jpg
Edition jpg
Place published Image Location
Institution Invasive Animals CRC
Notes Notes
Region Australia - national
Links

http://www.pestsmart.org.au/assessing-invasive-animals-in-australia-2008

Stephen-Zozaya-Cane-Toad-2

CAN001: Methods for the field euthanasia of cane toads

The cane toad (Bufo marinus) is native to northern South America, parts of Central America and Southern Texas. It was deliberately imported from Hawaii in 1935 and introduced into Australia’s tropical north-east in an unsuccessful attempt to control the cane beetle, a damaging insect pest of sugarcane crops. The toads quickly established in the new environment and began to spread. Today, they inhabit most of the Australian tropics and sub-tropics and have reached Western Australia. Their great expansion can be attributed to the combination of being highly adaptable to a range of environmental and climatic conditions, high fecundity and also being highly unpalatable.

Cane toads release potent toxins from their parotid glands as a defence strategy and predators who attempt to consume toads can be killed by ingestion of these toxins. Cane toad eggs also contain high levels of toxins and are also a danger to vertebrate predators. The direct impact of cane toads in Australia has been extensively studied and a review of this research has revealed that it is the lethal toxic ingestion of toads by frog-eating predators that is the major single mechanism of impact (Shine 2010). Although the cane toad has not been responsible for the extinction of any native species, some populations of predator species (varanid and scincid lizards, elapid snakes, freshwater crocodiles, and dasyurid marsupials) may be vulnerable, especially when toads first appear in a new area. However this negative impact can be variable and some of the taxa severely impacted by toad invasion recover within a few decades, via aversion learning and longer-term adaptive changes. The indirect impacts of toads such as food-web mediated effects are less understood and research is continuing in this area.

The control of cane toads is challenging because of their wide-spread distribution, large population numbers, high breeding capacity, small size and burrowing behaviour. Years of investigation into potential biocontrol agents have not yet been successful and currently there is no effective tool for broad-scale reduction of toad populations. Therefore, in the short term, management focuses on frontline surveys and removal of toads. Removal involves the intensive collection of toads by hand, sometimes aided by traps and/or barrier/deflection fencing.

This Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) contains current best practice for the euthanasia (or humane killing) of cane toads. The recommendations are based on information in the literature as well as behavioural observations and time to death recorded in a project to examine the welfare impact on cane toads of a range of euthanasia techniques. The research was conducted at the School of Biological Sciences, University of Wollongong (UOW): ‘Evaluating the humaneness of known-to-be-lethal euthanasia techniques for cane toads that are used by community groups’ (Munn and Lothian, 2010, unpublished). As new information becomes available the appropriateness of euthanasia methods for cane toads will be reviewed.

This SOP is a guide only; it does not replace or override the legislation that applies in the relevant State or Territory jurisdiction. The guidelines should only be used subject to the applicable legal requirements (including OH&S) operating in the relevant jurisdiction.

Secondary title Standard Operating Procedure
Reference type Policy Document
Author Trudy Sharp, Andrew Lothian, Adam Munn & Glen Saunders
Year 2011
Pages 25
ISBN/ISSN CAN001
Region Australia - national
Links
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Documents

Download: CAN001: Methods for the field euthanasia of cane toads  [  220kb PDF  ]

Cabi_logo

CABI: Invasive Species Compendium

The Invasive Species Compendium (ISC) is an online encyclopaedic resource that draws together scientific information on all aspects of invasive species (plant, insect and animal) worldwide.

It comprises detailed datasheets that have been written by experts, edited by CABI’s scientific staff, peer reviewed and enhanced with data from specialist organizations, images, maps, and a bibliographic database of abstracts and full text articles. New datasheets and data sets continue to be added, datasheets are reviewed and updated, and new scientific literature is included  on a weekly basis.

The ISC has been resourced by a diverse international Consortium of government departments, non-governmental organizations and private companies.

CABI (www.cabi.org/) is an international not-for-profit organization that improves people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment.

Access the Invasive Species Compendium at: http://www.cabi.org/isc/

Reference type Website
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banner

Feral Photos 2014

These images are a selection of entries from the Invasive Animals CRC’s 2014 Feral Photos photography competition. The annual competition is designed to help improve levels of awareness among members of the community, who have observed the presence of pest animals in their environment. The photos illustrate the significant diversity of pests we have in Australia and entries were received from across each State & Territory.

WARNING: Some people may find some of the following images confronting or distressing.

Click on the thumbnails to view a larger image.

See the website www.invasiveanimals.com/feral-photos for more information.

Reference type Image
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Laptop and iphone FeralScan views

FeralScan: web-based community reporting, education and extension tool for landholders and community

Lead researcher: Peter West, NSW Department of Primary Industries, peter.west@dpi.nsw.gov.au

Many current government databases lack detailed community information. This project builds capacity among communities to record data and information for local- scale management, as well as contributes information to complement landscape level knowledge value-adding to current initiatives to report on pest species and their impacts at regional, state and national scales.

This project established a community web-based reporting (and two-way communication tool) specifically for landholders, community groups, schools, indigenous groups and non-government agencies for recording information on a range of pest animals and their impacts throughout Australia. This is coupled with a broad range of education and extension material to support best-practice pest animal management.

FeralScan website:  www.feralscan.org.au

This project was funded under the Australian Pest Animal Research Program (APARP).
For more APARP projects, visit: www.pestsmart.org.au/australian-pest-animal-research-program/

Reference type Project
Author Australian Pest Animal Research Program (APARP)
Secondary Author Peter West
Year 2012
Institution NSW Department of Primary Industries, Invasive Animals CRC
Region Australia - national
Documents

Download project report: FeralScan: web-based community reporting, education and extension tool for landholders and community [ 4.1Mb PDF ]

Links
Stage1graphic

National mapping of the abundance of established, new and emerging pest animals to improve decision-making and the assessment of government investment programs: Part 1 – PEST ANIMALS

Lead researcher: Peter West, NSW Department of Primary Industries, peter.west@dpi.nsw.gov.au

Baseline information on the distribution and damage caused by pest animals is required to allocate resources to where they are most required and at strategic times. Data on the damage caused by pest animals is rarely available across broad landscapes and management agencies (and landholders) are largely reliant on information about the occurrence and numeric abundance of pests to guide management decisions and resourcing of on-ground pest control. Information on the extent and abundance of pest animals is also used to evaluate the effectiveness of policies, programs and decision-making.

This project aimed to directly address the need for improved information on significant pest animal species at the national-level through 4 objectives:

  1. To implement nationally endorsed monitoring protocols (at a finer-scale) to collect, collate and report information for established, new and emerging pest animal species throughout Australia (to complement existing national-scale datasets and information products).
  1. To develop improved Australia-wide datasets for national priority pest animals for monitoring, evaluation, reporting and program improvement (MERI).
  1. To centralise datasets for all species and produce consistent information products for all relevant regional, state/territory and national levels
  1. To deliver information products to relevant agencies, land managers and the community via government data libraries, portals, and stakeholder websites.

This project was funded under the Australian Pest Animal Research Program (APARP).
For more APARP projects, visit: www.pestsmart.org.au/australian-pest-animal-research-program/

Secondary title APARP Report
Reference type Report
Author Peter West
Year 2011
Publisher NSW Department of Primary Industries
Pages 63
Region Australia - national
Documents

Download full report: National mapping of the abundance of established, new and emerging pest animals to improve decision-making and the assessment of government investment programs STAGE 1: PEST ANIMALS [ 3.5 Mb PDF ]

CaneToadID

Identifying a cane toad

Adult cane toads are usually very large – around 9-15 cm (or 3.5 to 5 inches) long. If you find one over 4 cm long, you should be able to identify it from the picture below.

However, smaller toads can easily be confused with native frogs. To make sure you don’t kill a native frog by mistake, please take all toads under 4 cm long to a frog expert for identification. If handling them, use rubber gloves.

Information from the NSW Department of Environment and Heritage. Includes comparison pictures and sound recordings between cane toads and native frogs.

Author NSW Government
Year 2011
Department Department of Environment and Heritage
Region NSW
Links

http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/pestsweeds/IdentifyingACaneToad.htm

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Introduction of the cane toad to Australia

The introduction of cane toads (Bufo marinus) to Australia in the 1930s is one of the foremost examples of an exotic animal release gone wrong. Originally imported from Hawaii and released in Queensland as a biological control for beetle pests of sugar cane, the cane toad is now a well-established pest itself. Cane toads currently range across Queensland, the Northern Territory and into New South Wales and Western Australia. Despite being less widespread than foxes or rabbits, community
surveys consistently rank the toad as our most hated invasive animal1 and it is listed as a key threatening species under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

Today, most people know the cane toad was deliberately released as a biological control, but may not be familiar with the
events that led to their release.

A historical case study of the events surrounding the release of Australia’s most hated invasive animal and the lessons learned. Produced by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre as part of the PestSmart series.

Documents

PestSmart Case Study: Introduction of the cane toad to Australia

Links

PestSmart Toolkit: cane toad page

Author Invasive Animals CRC
Year 2012
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 2 pp
ISBN/ISSN PestSmart code: CTCS1
Region Australia - national
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PestSmart Factsheet: Cane toad

The cane toad is native to Central and South America and is a member of the ‘true toads’ (family Bufonidae). Cane toads have dry, yellow-brown, warty skin and large distinctive lumps (known as parotoid glands) behind the head. Cane toads naturally generate potent toxins (bufodienolides) throughout their bodies, which act by stopping the heart of most animals that attempt to eat them. These toxins concentrate in glands on the toad’s skin, and may be exuded as a milky-white substance if the toad is aggravated or distressed.

Cane toads are relatively long lived and can survive for over 15 years. The average body length of an adult cane toad is 10–15 cm and captive ones can grow up to 2 kg in weight. Cane toads are hardy animals that are able to survive  temperatures ranging from 5–37°C2. They are active mostly at night, and tend to shelter under leaf litter, rubble or scraps of iron during the day.

Fact sheet describing the biology, ecology and impacts of the cane toad in Australia. Produced by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre as part of the PestSmart series.

Documents

PestSmart Factsheet: Cane toad

Author Invasive Animals CRC
Year 2012
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 2 pp
ISBN/ISSN PestSmart code: CTFS1
Region Australia - national
Links

PestSmart Toolkit: cane toad page

Will the community accept our science? Monitoring the community’s view about managing pest animals in Australia

The Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre Community Awareness Survey (CAS) has pioneered a new technique in opinion research called ‘Reading the Public Mind’ (RtPM). For a comparatively low cost, this technique has provided a ‘moving picture’ that charts the changes in public attitudes to invasive animals and their control through time and helps explain the reasons behind them. It identifies the drivers of public opinion, thereby increasing the scope for better science communication, for education where public understanding might be faulty and for improved research planning based on knowledge of what the public will and will not accept.

CAS has produced remarkably consistent results over the nearly three years that it operated, providing the first Australia-wide picture of public attitudes and beliefs regarding invasive animals and ways of controlling them.

Author Fisher NI, Lee AJ and Cribb JHJ
Year 2012
Place published Canberra
Publisher Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre
Institution Invasive Animals CRC
Department Detection and Prevention Program
Pages 59 pp
ISBN/ISSN Web ISBN: 978-1-921777-42-4
Region Australia - national
Documents Will the community accept our science? Monitoring the community’s view about managing pest animals in Australia

Assessing the potential impact of invasive cane toads on a commercial freshwater fishery in tropical Australia

Context: The toxins produced by cane toads (Rhinella marina) are fatal to many Australian predators that ingest these invasive anurans. To date, the potential economic impact of the cane toad invasion has attracted little attention. Toads have recently arrived at a large impoundment (Lake Argyle) in north-eastern Western Australia, that supports a commercial fishery for silver cobbler (shovel-nosed catfish, Arius midgleyi), raising concern that the toads may inflict significant economic damage by killing fish.

Aims: Our research aimed to clarify the vulnerability of silver cobblers to the eggs and larvae of cane toads by determining (a) whether catfish are adversely affected if they prey on toad eggs or tadpoles, and (b) whether surviving catfish learn to avoid cane toad eggs and tadpoles in subsequent encounters.

Methods: We conducted laboratory feeding trials to examine feeding responses of catfish to cane toad eggs and tadpoles in early and late developmental stages. Fish that survived exposure to toad eggs and/or tadpoles were re-tested with potential prey of the same sizes and developmental stages four days later.

Key results: Our laboratory trials confirmed that some catfish eat toad eggs and die; but most catfish avoided the eggs. Catfish readily consumed toad tadpoles at both early and late developmental stages, but without experiencing mortality; and soon learned not to consume this toxic new prey type.

Conclusions and implications: Despite potential frequent episodes of mortality of small numbers of catfish during the wet season, the overall impacts of cane toads on the Lake Argyle fishery likely will be minimal.

Links http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/WR11026
Secondary title Wildlife Research
Author Ruchira Somaweera, Michael R. Crossland and Richard Shine
Year 2011
Volume 38
Number 5
Pages 380-385
ISBN/ISSN DOI: 10.1071/WR11026
Region WA
ClimateChange_banner

Modelling the distribution of vertebrate pests in New South Wales under climate change

This project, funded by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre on behalf of the New South Wales Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, develops and applies tools to model the distribution and abundance of vertebrate pest species in relation to climatic and biophysical variables. Such models are needed to predict how the distribution of pest species may vary under a changing climate. We assembled a priority list of vertebrate pests affecting biodiversity in New South Wales (NSW) based on reported threats to species, populations and ecological communities. Feral goats, feral cats, red foxes, European rabbits, and feral pigs are the most common recorded threats to ‘endangered’ or ‘vulnerable’ terrestrial species in NSW, affecting 84.5% of threatened species listed.

ClimateChangeRept_PScoverThis report covers these species—as well as cane toads, Indian mynas, starlings, wild dogs and wild deer. It uses quantitative and, where necessary, qualitative species distribution models to predict the distribution and abundance of these species using land manager desk-top surveys undertaken in 2004. Using the 2004 data, the species distribution models generally predicted the ranges of each species extremely well, but performed poorly in identifying areas where animals were considered to be at a high density. This may have resulted in part from data issues, including the effect of having multiple ‘observers’ and the scale of the analyses (5 km x 5 km grids).

These models were then used to predict the distribution and abundance of these pests under 2050 climate forecasts. Climate scenarios for 2050 were generated from four global circulation models (GCMs)—CSIRO, MIROC, ECHO and ECHAM—that performed reasonably well in modelling current Australian climate. As expected under a warmer climate, cane toads, which have tropical origins, are predicted to expand their range considerably (fourfold). Predictions varied more for species with temperate origins. Rabbits are predicted to generally decline in distribution and abundance. Foxes are predicted to increase in density in some areas and decrease in others, with their overall distribution changing little. Feral cats are predicted to have a slight decrease in abundance, but to maintain a similar range.

Author Peter Caley, Philip Tennant and Greg Hood
Date 02/06/2011
Year 2011
Place published Canberra
Publisher Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre
Pages 66 pp
Region NSW
Documents

Modelling the distribution of vertebrate pests in New South Wales under climate change (3.1 Mb PDF)

Biological control of the cane toad in Australia: a review

The marine toad Bufo marinus is native to northern South America, parts of Central America and Southern Texas. It was deliberately introduced into Australia’s tropical north-east in 1935 in an unsuccessful attempt to control the cane beetle, a damaging insect pest of sugarcane crops. The toads quickly established in the new environment and began to spread. Today, they inhabit most of the Australian tropics and sub-tropics and have reached Western Australia. Models predict that global warming will enable the toads to extend their range further south. They cause severe environmental impacts, as all life stages of B. marinus contain bufadienolides, alkaloid substances toxic to vertebrates, resulting in death of the predators ingesting it. The continental scale of this biological invasion in combination with the remoteness of the areas affected, poses a specific set of challenges to potential control approaches for cane toads. This review covers different biocontrol strategies pursued over the past 8 years, with particular focus on an immunological approach aiming at the disruption of toad metamorphosis. So far, research efforts have failed to produce a tool for large-scale reduction of toad populations. Considerations of future research priorities and efforts are also discussed.

Secondary title Animal Conservation
Author T. Shanmuganathan, J. Pallister, S. Doody, H. McCallum, T. Robinson, A. Sheppard, C. Hardy, D. Halliday, D. Venables, R. Voysey, T. Strive, L. Hinds and A. Hyatt
Year 2010
Volume 13
Number S1
Institution CSIRO
Pages 16-23
ISBN/ISSN DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-1795.2009.00319.x
Control method Biological Control
Region Australia - national
Links http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2009.00319.x