Category Archives: Indian myna; Indian Mynah

WHillier_Myna

Common myna impacts

Common or Indian mynas are now widespread throughout eastern Australia and are considered to threaten native biodiversity due to their territorial behaviours and nest cavity competition. The perceived impacts of the common myna are often based on unreliable information, and there is a lack of scientific research that confirms the bird’s actual impacts.

In 2008, the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre (IA CRC) funded a PhD project undertaken by Kate  Grarock using Canberra as a case study. Prior to this research there was limited understanding of the impact the  common myna had on the abundance of native species. This project aimed to investigate:

  • the invasion history of common mynas in Canberra
  • long-term native bird abundance in Canberra before and after common myna establishment
  • the impact of the common myna in combination with habitat variation
  • the impact of the common myna on cavity nesting species
  • the effect of common myna trapping on their abundance

A case study on the impacts of common (Indian) mynas on other bird species and the effectiveness of community trapping in Canberra. Produced by the Invasive Animals CRC as part of the PestSmart series.

 

Reference type Fact Sheet
Author Invasive Animals CRC
Year 2014
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 4
ISBN/ISSN PestSmart code: IMCS1
Control method Trapping
Region ACT
Documents

PestSmart Case study: Common myna impacts   [700kb PDF]

Links

PestSmart Toolkit for pest birds:

www.pestsmart.org.au/pest-animal-species/pest-birds/

IMyna_web

Common (Indian) Myna

IMFS1Common or Indian mynas (Acridotheres tristis or Sturnus tristis) are native to India and southern Asia. They are  popular birds in their source countries as crop pest control agents and as symbols of undying love associated with their habit of pairing for life.

Mynas have spread worldwide over the last 200 years. In Australia, common mynas are often confused with the native noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) and sometimes with yellow-throated miner (Manorina flavigula) because of their similar size and appearance.

Mynas were listed among 100 of the world’s worst invasive species by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) in 2000. In Australia, common mynas are considered to threaten native biodiversity due to their territorial behaviours and nest cavity competition.

Produced by the Invasive Animals CRC as part of the PestSmart series.

Reference type Fact Sheet
Author Invasive Animals CRC
Year 2014
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 2 pp
ISBN/ISSN PestSmart code: IMFS1
Region Australia - national
Documents

IMFS1: Common (Indian) Myna   [420kb PDF]

Links

PestSmart Toolkit for pest birds:
www.pestsmart.org.au/pest-animal-species/pest-birds/

PestSmart Facstheet: Common (Indian) Myna

mynah-150x150Common or Indian mynas (Acridotheres tristis or Sturnus tristis) are native to India and southern Asia. They are popular birds in their source countries as crop pest control agents and as symbols of undying love associated with their habit of pairing for life.

Mynas have spread worldwide over the last 200 years. In Australia, common mynas are often confused with the native noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) and sometimes with yellow-throated miner (Manorina flavigula) because of their similar size and appearance.

Mynas were listed among 100 of the world’s worst invasive species by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) in 2000. In Australia, common mynas are considered to threaten native biodiversity due to their territorial behaviours and nest cavity competition. They are lifelong monogamous and sedentary3 — breeding pairs use the same territory each year and maintain and defend their territory aggressively during the breeding season (August to March).

Factsheet on common myna distribution, impacts and current legislation. Produced by the Invasive Animals CRC as part of the PestSmart series.

Reference type Fact Sheet
Author Invasive Animals CRC
Year 2013
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 2 pp
ISBN/ISSN PestSmart code: IMFS1
Region Australia - national

PestSmart DVD: Guide to Practical Pest Animal Management

A two-disc DVD set of practical instructions on a range of pest animal control methods, new products and monitoring techniques for land and pest animal managers.

These instructional clips can also be found online at www.youtube.com/PestSmart. The techniques and products used are relevant to production and biodiversity based vertebrate pest control management programs.

The views expressed within these videos are that of the presenter and not necessarily of the Invasive Animals CRC or its partners. The information contained in these videos is for general information purposes only. Any reliance you place on such information is therefore strictly at your own risk. Please refer to local or State regulations and standard operating procedures before commencing any techniques shown in these DVDs.

Copies of the DVD are also available free of charge (stock permitting) by contacting the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre on email: contact@invasiveanimals.com or  (02) 6201 2887 .

Secondary title PestSmart video
Author Invasive Animals CRC
Year 2012
Publisher Invasive Animals CRC
Links Videos clips from this DVD can be viewed at the PestSmart YouTube Channel http://www.youtube.com/PestSmart

Modelling the distribution of vertebrate pests in New South Wales under climate change

This project, funded by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre on behalf of the New South Wales Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, develops and applies tools to model the distribution and abundance of vertebrate pest species in relation to climatic and biophysical variables. Such models are needed to predict how the distribution of pest species may vary under a changing climate. We assembled a priority list of vertebrate pests affecting biodiversity in New South Wales (NSW) based on reported threats to species, populations and ecological communities. Feral goats, feral cats, red foxes, European rabbits, and feral pigs are the most common recorded threats to ‘endangered’ or ‘vulnerable’ terrestrial species in NSW, affecting 84.5% of threatened species listed.

This report covers these species—as well as cane toads, Indian mynas, starlings, wild dogs and wild deer. It uses quantitative and, where necessary, qualitative species distribution models to predict the distribution and abundance of these species using land manager desk-top surveys undertaken in 2004. Using the 2004 data, the species distribution models generally predicted the ranges of each species extremely well, but performed poorly in identifying areas where animals were considered to be at a high density. This may have resulted in part from data issues, including the effect of having multiple ‘observers’ and the scale of the analyses (5 km x 5 km grids).

These models were then used to predict the distribution and abundance of these pests under 2050 climate forecasts. Climate scenarios for 2050 were generated from four global circulation models (GCMs)—CSIRO, MIROC, ECHO and ECHAM—that performed reasonably well in modelling current Australian climate. As expected under a warmer climate, cane toads, which have tropical origins, are predicted to expand their range considerably (fourfold). Predictions varied more for species with temperate origins. Rabbits are predicted to generally decline in distribution and abundance. Foxes are predicted to increase in density in some areas and decrease in others, with their overall distribution changing little. Feral cats are predicted to have a slight decrease in abundance, but to maintain a similar range.

Author Peter Caley, Philip Tennant and Greg Hood
Date 02/06/2011
Year 2011
Place published Canberra
Publisher Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre
Pages 66 pp
Region NSW
Documents

Modelling the distribution of vertebrate pests in New South Wales under climate change (3.1 Mb PDF)

Chris-Lane-Indian-Myna

Animal Pest Alert – Common Myna

The Common Myna or Mynah (Acridotheres tristis) is also known as the Indian, Calcutta or House Myna. It is not native to Australia but has established populations in eastern and south-eastern Australia, as well as other countries worldwide.
The Common Myna has significant potential to spread further in Australia as populations are expanding south in Queensland and westwards across western Victoria and New South Wales. It is important to immediately report any found in the wild in areas where the species has not been seen before.
Contains information on identification, distribution, damage, pest potential and risk management.

Reference type Fact Sheet
Author Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia
Date null
Year 2008
Publisher Government of Western Australia
Department Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Austra
Pages 4
Notes Notes
ISBN/ISSN No. 3/2008
Region Australia - national
Links

https://www.agric.wa.gov.au/pest-animals/animal-pest-alerts

Documents

Common Myna: pest animal alert

Northern Tablelands Region Pest Management Strategy 2008-2011

The development of Regional Pest Management Strategies (RPMS) provide NPWS with a strategic approach to pest management across NSW. The strategy developed for each region provides a tool to broadly identify pest distribution and their associated impacts across the park system. It details priority actions for each Region, including actions listed in the PAS and TAPs, wild dog and feral pig control to protect neighbouring properties, and site-based weed control. It also allows resources to be allocated to high priority programs. The RPMS also recognises the
requirements of other related plans or strategies, such as Wild Dog Plans or Bush Regeneration Plans, that provide a more detailed approach to pest management.

New pest species continue to establish in the environment, either through the importation of new species into Australia, the spread of existing pests into new areas, or through the escape of domestic plants and animals. Prevention and early detection followed by eradication is the most  cost-effective way to minimise the impacts of new pests. The NPWS works with other agencies to prevent the introduction of new pests into the wild and to respond rapidly when new incursions occur. The response of NSW government agencies to new pests will be coordinated through the NSW Invasive Species Plan.

Reference type Threat Abatement Plan or Management Strategy
Author NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
Date null
Year 2008
Publisher NSW Government
Institution NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
Department Department of Environment and Climate Change
Pages 83
Notes Notes
Control method Integrated Pest Management
Region NSW
Links http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/pestsweeds/RegionPestManagement.htm http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/pestsweeds/NTRegionRPMSSep07.pdf

Mid North Coast Region Pest Management Strategy 2008-2011

The development of Regional Pest Management Strategies (RPMS) provides NPWS with a strategic approach to pest management across NSW. The Strategy developed for each region provides a tool to broadly identify pest distribution and their associated impacts across the park system. It details priorities for each Region, including actions listed in the PAS and TAPs. It also details actions to protect neighbours such as wild dog, pig and site based weed control and allows resources to be allocated to high priority programs. The RPMS also identifies the requirement for other plans or strategies, such as Wild Dog Plans or Bush Regeneration Plans, that provide a more detailed approach.

New pest species continue to establish in the environment either through the importation of new species into Australia or the escape of domestic plants and animals. Prevention and early detection followed by eradication is the most cost-effective way to minimise the impacts of new pests. The NPWS works with other agencies to prevent the introduction of new pests into the wild and to respond rapidly when new incursions occur. The response of NSW government agencies to new pests will be coordinated through the NSW Invasive Species Plan.

Reference type Threat Abatement Plan or Management Strategy
Author NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
Date null
Year 2008
Publisher NSW Government
Institution NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
Department Department of Environment and Climate Change
Pages 67
Notes Notes
Control method Integrated Pest Management
Region NSW
Links http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/pestsweeds/RegionPestManagement.htm http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/pestsweeds/MNCRegionRPMSSep07.pdf

Northern Rivers Region Pest Management Strategy 2008-2011

The development of Regional Pest Management Strategies (RPMS) provides NPWS with a strategic approach to pest management across NSW. The Strategy developed for each region provides a tool to broadly identify pest distribution and their associated Impacts across the park system. It details priorities for each Region, including actions listed in the PAS and TAPs as well as other actions such as wild dog and feral pig control to protect neighbouring properties and site-based weed control and allows resources to be allocated to high priority programs. The RPMS also identifies the requirement for other plans or strategies, such as Wild Dog Plans or Bush Regeneration Plans, that provide a more detailed approach.

New pest species continue to establish in the environment either through the importation of new species into Australia or the escape of domestic plants and animals. Prevention and early detection followed by eradication is the most cost-effective way to minimise the Impacts of new pests. The NPWS works with other agencies to prevent the introduction of new pests into the wild and to respond rapidly when new incursions occur. The response of NSW government agencies to new pests will be coordinated through the NSW Invasive Species Plan.

Reference type Threat Abatement Plan or Management Strategy
Author NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
Date null
Year 2008
Publisher NSW Government
Institution NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
Department Department of Environment and Climate Change
Pages 107
Notes Notes
Control method Integrated Pest Management
Region NSW
Links http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/pestsweeds/RegionPestManagement.htm http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/pestsweeds/NRRegionRPMSSep07.pdf

Protecting our national parks from pests and weeds

Invasive species (weeds and pest animals) represent one of the greatest threats to biodiversity around the world. They also cause financial losses to agriculture and other industries, and damage areas of cultural significance. Managing the impacts
of pests is therefore an issue of great importance for the managers of all land tenures. The problem requires sustained, long-term management to minimise the damage by pests to environmental, economic and social values.

The NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) manages pests within the state?s park system to protect native flora and fauna, maintain natural ecosystems and cultural heritage, and minimise the spread of pest animals and weeds to and
from neighbouring land. One of the keys to successful pest management is cooperation, and NPWS actively works with other agencies, private landholders and community groups.

The complete eradication of pests over wide areas of different land tenures is, however, rarely practicable. It is therefore necessary to prioritise pest management efforts and allocate resources to those areas where they will be of greatest benefit.
Priorities include those areas where new pest outbreaks occur, where threatened native plants and animals are at risk from the impacts of pests, and where there is a need to minimise the impacts of pests on neighbouring lands, such as farmland.

This report assesses our performance in managing pests within the park system, using data from a survey of all parks in NSW. The report also presents a number of examples and case studies, illustrating the complexity of pest management and highlighting excellence in NPWS pest and weed control programs and initiatives across the state.

Reference type Report
Author Department of Environment and Conservation NSW
Date null
Year 2006
Place published City
Institution Department of Environment and Conservation NSW
Department Department of Environment and Conservation NSW
Pages 48 pp
Notes Notes
ISBN/ISSN ISBN 1 74137 973 3
Region NSW
Links http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/pestsweeds/SoPPestManagement.htm

Restraint and handling of pest animals used in research

Research involving pest animals may require the live capture, restraint and handling of individual animals. Wild animals may try to avoid capture, handling and restraint during which they are capable of inflicting damage to themselves and their potential captors. When physical contact is necessary, the safety of animals and operators should be the primary consideration.

Restraint and handling techniques must be appropriate for the species and minimise distress and the risk of injury to the animal. Inappropriate techniques may lead to major and possibly fatal physiological disturbances.

This standard operating procedure (SOP) is a guide only; it does not replace or override the legislation that applies in the relevant State or Territory jurisdiction. The SOP should only be used subject to the applicable legal requirements (including OH&S) operating in the relevant jurisdiction.

Reference type Policy Document
Author Trudy Sharp, Glen Saunders & Bruce Mitchell
Year 2005
Secondary title RES002 - Threat Abatement Project 46217
Publisher Australian Government Department of the Environmen
Institution NSW Department of Primary Industries
Pages 17 pp
Notes RES002
Region Australia - national
Links http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/publications/threat-abatement-projects/pubs/46217-operating-procedure-2.pdf
Documents Restraint and handling of pest animals used in research [270 kb PDF]

Live capture of pest animals used in research

Research involving pest animals may require the live capture, restraint and handling of individual animals. Wild animals may try to avoid capture, handling and restraint during which they are capable of inflicting damage to themselves and their potential captors. When physical contact is necessary, the safety of animals and operators should be the primary consideration.

Capture techniques must be appropriate for the species and minimise distress and the risk of injury to the animal. Inappropriate techniques may lead to major and possibly fatal physiological disturbances.

This standard operating procedure (SOP) is a guide only; it does not replace or override the legislation that applies in the relevant State or Territory jurisdiction. The SOP should only be used subject to the applicable legal requirements (including OH&S) operating in the relevant jurisdiction.

Reference type Policy Document
Author Trudy Sharp, Glen Saunders & Bruce Mitchell
Year 2005
Secondary title RES001 - Threat Abatement Project 46217
Publisher Australian Government Department of the Environmen
Institution NSW Department of Primary Industries
Pages 14 pp
Notes RES001
Control method Trapping
Region Australia - national
Links http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/publications/threat-abatement-projects/pubs/46217-operating-procedure-1.pdf
Documents Live capture of pest animals used in research [245 kb PDF]

Review of the management of feral animals and their impact on biodiversity in the Rangelands: A resource to aid NRM planning

The Pest Animal Control Cooperative Research Centre (PAC CRC) was
commissioned by the Australian Department of the Environment and Heritage to
review feral animal management for biodiversity outcomes in the Rangelands. This
review was undertaken to help guide future Natural Heritage Trust spending on feral
pest management and control in the Rangelands.

The outcomes of the project were to:

  • provide options for the Australian Government to better target its action and
    investment to limit the impact of feral animals on biodiversity in the Rangelands
  • assist Australian Government officers to assess the adequacy and effectiveness of proposed feral animal projects in the context of the Natural Heritage Trust
    regional planning process
  • improve the regions’ ability to plan for and implement feral animal management
    in an integrated way to protect biodiversity.

The report achieves these outcomes by:

  • summarising relevant Australian Government, State and Territory legislation, as
    well as government and private arrangements (Section 4);
  • documenting existing methods for the management of feral animals (Section 5);
  • assessing the adequacy of these methods and their applicability to the Rangelands (addressed in Sections 5 and 7);
  • identifying gaps and opportunities for targeting Commonwealth action and
    investment in the management of feral animals in the Rangelands (Section 7).
  • developing a checklist for best practice planning and management of feral animals, to assist regions to develop programs and projects, and to allow Government officers to assess those programs and projects (Section 8)
  • listing rangeland feral animal management projects previously funded under the
    Natural Heritage Trust and other programs (Appendix 3)

The report begins with a major section that lists feral animal species found in the
Rangelands, summarising their distribution and impacts on biodiversity (Section 3).

Reference type Report
Author Norris, A, and Low, T,
Date null
Year 2005
Place published City
Publisher Pest Animal Control CRC
Institution Pest Animal Control CRC
Pages 247 pp
Notes Notes
Region Australia - national
Documents Rangelands Review

Eradication of Common Mynas

The common myna (Acridotheres tristis) is native to the Indian subcontinent and Sri Lanka, but has invaded (with human help) many islands in the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic oceans – as well as New Zealand, Australia and South Africa. In many Pacific islands, mynas are often the most common birds seen around towns and villages.
Mynas were first introduced to New Zealand, Australia, Fiji and Hawai’i in the late 1800s and from there they have been spread to at least 40 other Pacific islands. The last known liberations were on Mangaia Island in the Cook Islands about 1960, and on Tutuila Island in American Samoa in the mid-1980s. In New Zealand, mynas are now common throughout the North Island north of a line between Wanganui and Waipukurau, and no attempt has been made or is being planned to control their populations.

Mangaia is the second largest and most southerly of the Cook Islands and is the oldest island in the Pacific. It has a central volcanic plateau and, like many of the southern islands in the Cooks, it is surrounded by a 60 m high ring of cliffs comprised of fossilised coral or makatea. The island has a population of around 600 people. In 1996 the common myna population on Mangaia Island was estimated at 8,000?10,000 birds with most found in arable areas of the island.

Relevant information can be found at the links below including:
Pacific Invasives Initiative project page
Feasibility study report, June 2006
Landcare Research (NZ) newsletter investigating management of Mynas in New Zealand (Kararehe Kino. Vertebrate Pest Research Newsletter, Issue 9 pp 1-3).

Reference type Project
Author Pacific Invasives Initiative, John Parkes
Date null
Year 2006
Institution Landcare Research
Notes Notes
Region NZ
Links http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/publications/newsletters/possnews/
http://issg.org/cii/pii/Electronic%20references/Mangaia%20Myna%20FS%20Report%20290906.pdf
http://issg.org/cii/pii/Demonstration%20Projects/Mangaia.htm

The State of Australia’s Birds 2006: Invasive Species

The State of Australia?s Birds series presents an overview of the status of Australia?s birds, the major threats they face and the conservation actions needed. This fourth annual report focuses on invasive species.

Australia has hundreds of invasive plants and animals, both native and introduced. Some have been brought purposely, others hitchhiked. The majority simply took the many opportunities offered by human alteration of the landscape. Invasive species are considered to be the greatest threat to biodiversity after habitat loss; they also exact a massive toll on agricultural production. Some of the most abundant invaders compete with or prey upon native birds, or alter their habitat. Introduced predators, plants and competitors are conservatively estimated to contribute to the threatened status of some 95, 12 and 16 bird taxa (species and subspecies), respectively. Yet, invasive plants and animals may provide food and habitat for native birds in already degraded natural systems, and some native birds themselves become invasive.

Reference type Magazine Article
Author Penny Olsen, Andrew Silcocks & Michael Weston
Date null
Year 2006
Secondary title Supplement to Wingspan
Volume 16
Number 4
Pages 17
Notes Notes
ISBN/ISSN 1036-7810
Region Australia - national
Links http://www.birdsaustralia.com.au/soab/SOAB2006.pdf

Wildwatch2: Quest for Pests

There is an urgent need to find out more about the wildlife we share our cities, towns and farms with, so we can conserve and manage our diverse and unique animals.

The WildWatch2 survey aimed to find out which animals are perceived as problems, why they are a problem and how serious the problem is. This sort of information is invaluable for conservation, planning and wildlife management organisations to help direct research and extension effort.
View survey results, photo galleries, pest profiles, maps and more.

Reference type Website
Author ABC Online
Date null
Year 2005
Publisher ABC Online
Notes Notes
Region Australia - national
Links http://www.abc.net.au/tv/wildwatch/

Indian Myna Birds

Indian Mynas are very aggressive and intelligent birds that are known to evict native birds; including parrots, kookaburras and peewees from their nests, dump out their eggs and chase them away from their roosting areas. In urban habitats they are considered to be a threat to the long-term survival of these birds and other native species such as sugar gliders that depend on tree hollows for survival. They are also suspected to contribute to the spread of certain weed species such as Bitou Bush in other parts of Australia.

Surveys of Indian Mynas undertaken by the Canberra Ornithologists Group have demonstrated a marked increase in myna abundance over the last two decades.

Reference type Fact Sheet
Author Environment ACT
Date null
Year 2004
Publisher Environment ACT
Notes Notes
Region ACT
Links http://www.tams.act.gov.au/live/environment/pestsandweeds/indianmynabirds

Indicator: Pest animals

Pest animals remain a potentially significant threat to biodiversity in the ACT despite measures for their control and management. The ACT Vertebrate Pest Management Strategy (2002) forms the basis for vertebrate pest control in the ACT.

Fox and rabbit numbers appear to be toward the lower end of their historical range; deer, pigs and goats are present in low numbers; small numbers of horses have been active on the boundary of Namadgi National Park; wild dogs have required ongoing control; and there are new populations of the Oriental Weatherloach.

The European Wasp and Common Myna have become more firmly established. An innovative trapping trial is underway for the latter. In response to increased road collisions with kangaroos, the Government initiated a driver awareness campaign (?Give Kangaroos a Brake?) in 2002.

Reference type Website
Author ACT Commissioner for the Environment
Date null
Year 2003
Publisher ACT Government
Notes Notes
Region ACT
Links http://www.envcomm.act.gov.au/soe/2003actreport/indicators03/pestanimals03

Humane pest animal control: Code of Practice and Standard Operating Procedures

This publication meets the pressing need for pest animal control methods which are humane, target specific, cost-effective and safe for humans to use. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) discuss animal welfare impacts for target and non-target species and describe techniques and their application, as well as covering health and safety aspects. A Code of Practice (COP) for each of the key pest animal species provides general information on best practice management, control strategies, species biology and impact, and the humaneness of current control methods.

These procedures are intended for anyone engaged in pest animal control, from land managers through to pest animal control officers and researchers. They have been produced after extensive consultation with a wide range of stakeholders throughout Australia including government and non-government organisations, animal welfare groups and technical specialists. They will allow uniform implementation of techniques and training for proficiency in pest animal control, and will address community expectations and regulatory requirements. At the same time, the procedures reflect common sense and can be applied across the many diverse situations and environments where they are needed.

Reference type Policy Document
Author NSW Department of Primary Industries
Date null
Year 2005
Institution NSW Department of Primary Industries
Notes Notes
Region NSW
Links http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/pests-weeds/vertebrate-pests/codes/humane-pest-animal-control

BIR002: Trapping of Pest Birds

The aim of trapping is to reduce bird numbers in order to minimise the damage done to crops etc. However the process is often labour intensive, opportunistic and may have limited value in bird control. After trapping, pest birds are humanely killed.

This standard operating procedure (SOP) is a guide only; it does not replace or override the legislation that applies in the relevent state or territory jurisdiction. The SOP should only be used subject to the applicable legal requirements (including OH&S) operating in the relevent jurisdication.

Reference type Policy Document
Author Sharp,T.
Year 2012
Publisher Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre
Institution Invasive Animals CRC
Pages 8
Notes BIR002
Control method Trapping
Region Australia - national
Links http://www.pestsmart.org.au/animal-welfare/humane-codes/
Documents BIR002: Trapping of pest birds  [660 kb PDF]